Characterization of the Microcystis Bloom and Its Nitrogen Supply in San Francisco Estuary Using Stable Isotopes

P. W. Lehman, C. Kendall, M. A. Guerin, M. B. Young, S. R. Silva, G. L. Boyer, Swee J Teh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A suite of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic stable isotopes were needed to determine the source of the nutrients and cells that initiate and sustain the toxic cyanobacteria bloom of Microcystis in San Francisco Estuary. Particulate and dissolved inorganic and organic matter in water and plankton samples were collected biweekly during Microcystis blooms in 2007 and 2008. Stable isotopes for particulate and dissolved organic matter, nitrate, and water (POM-δ<sup>13</sup>C, POM-δ<sup>15</sup>N, DOC-δ<sup>13</sup>C, C/N ratio, NO<inf>3</inf>-δ<sup>15</sup>N, NO<inf>3</inf>-δ<sup>18</sup>O, H<inf>2</inf>O-δ<sup>18</sup>O and H<inf>2</inf>O-δ<sup>2</sup>H) were compared with Microcystis cell abundance, dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll a, and toxic total microcystins concentration, as well as physical and chemical water quality variables, including streamflow. The isotopic composition of particulate organic matter, nitrate, and water differed for the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and varied along the salinity gradient. The variation of particulate organic matter and water isotopes suggested Microcystis primarily entered the estuary from the San Joaquin and Old Rivers, where it was most abundant. Nitrate isotopes along with streamflow variables indicated that the San Joaquin River was a source of nitrate to the estuary. However, stable isotope comparison of the nitrogen in Microcystis cells with the dissolved inorganic nitrate in the San Joaquin River indicated that nitrate was not the primary source of nitrogen that supported the bloom. Instead, ammonium from the Sacramento River was the likely sole source of the nitrogen for most of the bloom. Selective uptake of ammonium may have further contributed to the magnitude of the Microcystis bloom which increased with the percent of ammonium within the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen pool.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-178
Number of pages14
JournalEstuaries and Coasts
Volume38
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Microcystis
stable isotopes
algal bloom
stable isotope
estuaries
San Joaquin River
nitrates
estuary
nitrate
nitrogen
particulate organic matter
river
ammonium
stream flow
dissolved organic matter
streamflow
dissolved inorganic matter
isotopes
particulates
water

Keywords

  • Cyanobacteria bloom
  • Estuary
  • Microcystis
  • Nutrients
  • Stable isotopes
  • Streamflow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology

Cite this

Characterization of the Microcystis Bloom and Its Nitrogen Supply in San Francisco Estuary Using Stable Isotopes. / Lehman, P. W.; Kendall, C.; Guerin, M. A.; Young, M. B.; Silva, S. R.; Boyer, G. L.; Teh, Swee J.

In: Estuaries and Coasts, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2014, p. 165-178.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lehman, P. W. ; Kendall, C. ; Guerin, M. A. ; Young, M. B. ; Silva, S. R. ; Boyer, G. L. ; Teh, Swee J. / Characterization of the Microcystis Bloom and Its Nitrogen Supply in San Francisco Estuary Using Stable Isotopes. In: Estuaries and Coasts. 2014 ; Vol. 38, No. 1. pp. 165-178.
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