Whole mitogenome sequences (mtDNA) have been exploited for insect ecology studies, using them as molecular markers to reconstruct phylogenies, or to infer phylogeographic relationships and gene flow. Recent Anopheles phylogenomic studies have provided information regarding the time of deep lineage divergences within the genus. Here we report the complete 15,393 bp mtDNA sequences of Anopheles aquasalis, a Neotropical human malaria vector. When comparing its structure and base composition with other relevant and available anopheline mitogenomes, high similarity and conserved genomic features were observed. Furthermore, 22 mtDNA sequences comprising anopheline and Dipteran sibling species were analyzed to reconstruct phylogenies and estimate dates of divergence between taxa. Phylogenetic analysis using complete mtDNA sequences suggests that A. aquasalis diverged from the Anopheles albitarsis complex ~28 million years ago (MYA), and ~38 MYA from Anopheles darlingi. Bayesian analysis suggests that the most recent ancestor of Nyssorhynchus and Anopheles + Cellia was extant ~83 MYA, corroborating current estimates of ~79-100 MYA. Additional sampling and publication of African, Asian, and North American anopheline mitogenomes would improve the resolution of the Anopheles phylogeny and clarify early continental dispersal routes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)