Characterization of site-specific ScFv PEGylation for tumor-targeting pharmaceuticals

Arutselvan Natarajan, Cheng Yi Xiong, Huguette Albrecht, Gerald L Denardo, Sally J. DeNardo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

New radiopharmaceuticals are possible using site-specific conjugation of small tumor binding proteins and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) scaffolds to provide modular multivalent, homo- or heterofunctional cancer-targeting molecules having preferred molecular size, valence, and functionality. Residence time in plasma can be optimized by modification of the size, number, and charge of the protein units. However, random PEG conjugation (PEGylation) of these small molecules via amine groups has led to variations of structural conformation and binding affinity. To optimize PEGylation, scFvs have been recombinantly produced in a vector that adds an unpaired cysteine (c) near the scFv carboxy terminus (scFv-c), thus providing a specific site for thiol conjugation. To evaluate the general applicability of this unpaired cysteine for PEGylation of scFv-c, conjugation efficiency was determined for four different scFvs and several PEG molecules having thiol reactive groups. The effect of the PEG molecular format on scFv-c PEG malignant cell binding was also addressed. ScFvs produced as scFv-c and purified by anti E-TAG affinity chromatography were conjugated using PEG molecules with maleimide (Mal) or o-pyridyl disulfide (OPSS). Conjugations were performed at pH 7.0, with 2 molar excess TCEP/scFv and PEG-(Mal) or PEG-OPSS, using 5:1 (PEG/scFv). PEG-Mal conjugation efficiency was also evaluated with 1:5 (PEG/scFv). PEGylation efficiency was determined for each reaction by quantitation of the products on SDS-PAGE. ScFv-c conjugation with unifunctional maleimide PEGs resulted in PEG conjugates incorporating 30-80% of the scFv-c, but usually above 50%. Efficiency of scFv-c conjugation to both functional groups of the bifunctional PEG-(Mal)2 varied between the PEG and scFv-c molecules studied. A maximum of 45% of scFv-c protein was conjugated as PEG- (scFv-c)2 using the smallest PEG-(Mal)2 (2 kDa). No significant increase in scFv-c conjugation was observed by the use of greater than a 5 molar excess of PEG/scFv-c. Under the same conjugation conditions, PEG as OPSS yielded less than 10% PEG-scFv-c. PEG-(ScFv)2 conjugates had increased binding in ELISA using malignant cell membranes, when compared with unmodified scFv-c. PEGylated-scFv binding was comparable with unmodified scFv-c. In summary, scFv-c can be PEGylated in a site-specific manner using uni- or bivalent PEG-Mal, either linear or branched. ScFv-c was most efficiently conjugated to smaller PEG-Mal molecules, with the smallest, 2 kDa PEG-Mal, usually PEGylating 60-90% of the scFv-c. ScFv-c conjugation to form PEG-(scFv-c)2 reached greatest efficiency at 45%, and its purified form demonstrated greater binding than the corresponding scFv-c.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-121
Number of pages9
JournalBioconjugate Chemistry
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2005

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Drug products
Polyethylene glycols
Tumors
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Neoplasms
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Cysteine
maleimide
Molecules
Ethylene Glycol
Radiopharmaceuticals
Affinity Chromatography
Disulfides
Amines
Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
Carrier Proteins
Proteins
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Cell Membrane
Affinity chromatography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry

Cite this

Characterization of site-specific ScFv PEGylation for tumor-targeting pharmaceuticals. / Natarajan, Arutselvan; Xiong, Cheng Yi; Albrecht, Huguette; Denardo, Gerald L; DeNardo, Sally J.

In: Bioconjugate Chemistry, Vol. 16, No. 1, 01.2005, p. 113-121.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Natarajan, Arutselvan ; Xiong, Cheng Yi ; Albrecht, Huguette ; Denardo, Gerald L ; DeNardo, Sally J. / Characterization of site-specific ScFv PEGylation for tumor-targeting pharmaceuticals. In: Bioconjugate Chemistry. 2005 ; Vol. 16, No. 1. pp. 113-121.
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abstract = "New radiopharmaceuticals are possible using site-specific conjugation of small tumor binding proteins and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) scaffolds to provide modular multivalent, homo- or heterofunctional cancer-targeting molecules having preferred molecular size, valence, and functionality. Residence time in plasma can be optimized by modification of the size, number, and charge of the protein units. However, random PEG conjugation (PEGylation) of these small molecules via amine groups has led to variations of structural conformation and binding affinity. To optimize PEGylation, scFvs have been recombinantly produced in a vector that adds an unpaired cysteine (c) near the scFv carboxy terminus (scFv-c), thus providing a specific site for thiol conjugation. To evaluate the general applicability of this unpaired cysteine for PEGylation of scFv-c, conjugation efficiency was determined for four different scFvs and several PEG molecules having thiol reactive groups. The effect of the PEG molecular format on scFv-c PEG malignant cell binding was also addressed. ScFvs produced as scFv-c and purified by anti E-TAG affinity chromatography were conjugated using PEG molecules with maleimide (Mal) or o-pyridyl disulfide (OPSS). Conjugations were performed at pH 7.0, with 2 molar excess TCEP/scFv and PEG-(Mal) or PEG-OPSS, using 5:1 (PEG/scFv). PEG-Mal conjugation efficiency was also evaluated with 1:5 (PEG/scFv). PEGylation efficiency was determined for each reaction by quantitation of the products on SDS-PAGE. ScFv-c conjugation with unifunctional maleimide PEGs resulted in PEG conjugates incorporating 30-80{\%} of the scFv-c, but usually above 50{\%}. Efficiency of scFv-c conjugation to both functional groups of the bifunctional PEG-(Mal)2 varied between the PEG and scFv-c molecules studied. A maximum of 45{\%} of scFv-c protein was conjugated as PEG- (scFv-c)2 using the smallest PEG-(Mal)2 (2 kDa). No significant increase in scFv-c conjugation was observed by the use of greater than a 5 molar excess of PEG/scFv-c. Under the same conjugation conditions, PEG as OPSS yielded less than 10{\%} PEG-scFv-c. PEG-(ScFv)2 conjugates had increased binding in ELISA using malignant cell membranes, when compared with unmodified scFv-c. PEGylated-scFv binding was comparable with unmodified scFv-c. In summary, scFv-c can be PEGylated in a site-specific manner using uni- or bivalent PEG-Mal, either linear or branched. ScFv-c was most efficiently conjugated to smaller PEG-Mal molecules, with the smallest, 2 kDa PEG-Mal, usually PEGylating 60-90{\%} of the scFv-c. ScFv-c conjugation to form PEG-(scFv-c)2 reached greatest efficiency at 45{\%}, and its purified form demonstrated greater binding than the corresponding scFv-c.",
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N2 - New radiopharmaceuticals are possible using site-specific conjugation of small tumor binding proteins and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) scaffolds to provide modular multivalent, homo- or heterofunctional cancer-targeting molecules having preferred molecular size, valence, and functionality. Residence time in plasma can be optimized by modification of the size, number, and charge of the protein units. However, random PEG conjugation (PEGylation) of these small molecules via amine groups has led to variations of structural conformation and binding affinity. To optimize PEGylation, scFvs have been recombinantly produced in a vector that adds an unpaired cysteine (c) near the scFv carboxy terminus (scFv-c), thus providing a specific site for thiol conjugation. To evaluate the general applicability of this unpaired cysteine for PEGylation of scFv-c, conjugation efficiency was determined for four different scFvs and several PEG molecules having thiol reactive groups. The effect of the PEG molecular format on scFv-c PEG malignant cell binding was also addressed. ScFvs produced as scFv-c and purified by anti E-TAG affinity chromatography were conjugated using PEG molecules with maleimide (Mal) or o-pyridyl disulfide (OPSS). Conjugations were performed at pH 7.0, with 2 molar excess TCEP/scFv and PEG-(Mal) or PEG-OPSS, using 5:1 (PEG/scFv). PEG-Mal conjugation efficiency was also evaluated with 1:5 (PEG/scFv). PEGylation efficiency was determined for each reaction by quantitation of the products on SDS-PAGE. ScFv-c conjugation with unifunctional maleimide PEGs resulted in PEG conjugates incorporating 30-80% of the scFv-c, but usually above 50%. Efficiency of scFv-c conjugation to both functional groups of the bifunctional PEG-(Mal)2 varied between the PEG and scFv-c molecules studied. A maximum of 45% of scFv-c protein was conjugated as PEG- (scFv-c)2 using the smallest PEG-(Mal)2 (2 kDa). No significant increase in scFv-c conjugation was observed by the use of greater than a 5 molar excess of PEG/scFv-c. Under the same conjugation conditions, PEG as OPSS yielded less than 10% PEG-scFv-c. PEG-(ScFv)2 conjugates had increased binding in ELISA using malignant cell membranes, when compared with unmodified scFv-c. PEGylated-scFv binding was comparable with unmodified scFv-c. In summary, scFv-c can be PEGylated in a site-specific manner using uni- or bivalent PEG-Mal, either linear or branched. ScFv-c was most efficiently conjugated to smaller PEG-Mal molecules, with the smallest, 2 kDa PEG-Mal, usually PEGylating 60-90% of the scFv-c. ScFv-c conjugation to form PEG-(scFv-c)2 reached greatest efficiency at 45%, and its purified form demonstrated greater binding than the corresponding scFv-c.

AB - New radiopharmaceuticals are possible using site-specific conjugation of small tumor binding proteins and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) scaffolds to provide modular multivalent, homo- or heterofunctional cancer-targeting molecules having preferred molecular size, valence, and functionality. Residence time in plasma can be optimized by modification of the size, number, and charge of the protein units. However, random PEG conjugation (PEGylation) of these small molecules via amine groups has led to variations of structural conformation and binding affinity. To optimize PEGylation, scFvs have been recombinantly produced in a vector that adds an unpaired cysteine (c) near the scFv carboxy terminus (scFv-c), thus providing a specific site for thiol conjugation. To evaluate the general applicability of this unpaired cysteine for PEGylation of scFv-c, conjugation efficiency was determined for four different scFvs and several PEG molecules having thiol reactive groups. The effect of the PEG molecular format on scFv-c PEG malignant cell binding was also addressed. ScFvs produced as scFv-c and purified by anti E-TAG affinity chromatography were conjugated using PEG molecules with maleimide (Mal) or o-pyridyl disulfide (OPSS). Conjugations were performed at pH 7.0, with 2 molar excess TCEP/scFv and PEG-(Mal) or PEG-OPSS, using 5:1 (PEG/scFv). PEG-Mal conjugation efficiency was also evaluated with 1:5 (PEG/scFv). PEGylation efficiency was determined for each reaction by quantitation of the products on SDS-PAGE. ScFv-c conjugation with unifunctional maleimide PEGs resulted in PEG conjugates incorporating 30-80% of the scFv-c, but usually above 50%. Efficiency of scFv-c conjugation to both functional groups of the bifunctional PEG-(Mal)2 varied between the PEG and scFv-c molecules studied. A maximum of 45% of scFv-c protein was conjugated as PEG- (scFv-c)2 using the smallest PEG-(Mal)2 (2 kDa). No significant increase in scFv-c conjugation was observed by the use of greater than a 5 molar excess of PEG/scFv-c. Under the same conjugation conditions, PEG as OPSS yielded less than 10% PEG-scFv-c. PEG-(ScFv)2 conjugates had increased binding in ELISA using malignant cell membranes, when compared with unmodified scFv-c. PEGylated-scFv binding was comparable with unmodified scFv-c. In summary, scFv-c can be PEGylated in a site-specific manner using uni- or bivalent PEG-Mal, either linear or branched. ScFv-c was most efficiently conjugated to smaller PEG-Mal molecules, with the smallest, 2 kDa PEG-Mal, usually PEGylating 60-90% of the scFv-c. ScFv-c conjugation to form PEG-(scFv-c)2 reached greatest efficiency at 45%, and its purified form demonstrated greater binding than the corresponding scFv-c.

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