Characterization of prenatal growth and development in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) by ultrasound

Alice F Tarantal, Andrew G Hendrickx

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Diagnostic ultrasound is a valuable tool for the examination of various anatomical structures in vivo. Improvements in technology have increased its effectiveness and provided a noninvasive method for the in utero observation of a variety of structural and functional events. Ultrasound is utilized in our laboratory to monitor a variety of studies during embryonic and fetal development. Basic to these evaluations is the ability to assess normal growth and development. The cynomolgus, or crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), has been observed in utero by ultrasound from early gestation to term. The earliest detection of implantation is by the identification of a developing gestational sac (GS), which may be visualized on gestational day (GD) 14-15. Positive identification of the GS on GD 16-18 and appearance of the embryo, yolk sac, and cardiac motion on GD 21-25 confirms pregnancy. Once the embryo is evident, measurements of the greatest length (GL) may be used to assess normal growth or to aid in the prediction of gestational age. During the fetal period, a variety of growth parameters aid in fetal evaluation. The gender of the fetus can be accurately identified as early as GD 70-75. An assessment of viability and condition can be determined by the observation of embryonic and fetal heart rates and gross body movement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)177-184
Number of pages8
JournalAnatomical Record
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1988

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Anatomy


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