Characterization of endotoxin collected on California dairies using personal and area-based sampling methods

John Garcia, Deborah H Bennett, Daniel J Tancredi, Marc B Schenker, Diane C. Mitchell, Stephen J. Reynolds, Rona Silva, Gregory P. Dooley, John Mehaffy, Frank M. Mitloehner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Endotoxin, found in the cell wall of gram negative bacteria, is an important contributor to the biological activity of agriculture particulate matter (PM). We analyzed endotoxin in PM collected on 13 California dairies and from the breathing zone of 226 workers during the summer months of 2008. Two particle size fractions were measured: PM2.5 and inhalable PM. Recombinant factor C assays were used to analyze biologically active endotoxin, while gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem was used to quantify total lipopolysaccharide. Biologically active endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable PM size fraction from area-based samples ranged from 11-2095 EU/m3 and from 45-2061 EU/m3 for personal samples. Total endotoxin in the inhalable PM size fraction ranged from 75-10,166 pmol/m 3 for area-based samples and 34-11,689 pmol/m3 for personal samples. Area-based geometric mean concentrations for biologically active endotoxin and total endotoxin in PM2.5 and inhalable PM size fractions were 3 EU/m3,149 EU/m3,60pmol/m3, and 515pmol/m3, respectively. Personal geometric mean concentrations in the inhalable PM size fraction were 334 EU/m3, and 1178 pmol/m 3. Biologically active and total endotoxin concentration variation was best explained by meteorological data, wind speed, relative humidity, and dairy waste management practices. Differences in endotoxin concentration and composition were found across locations on the dairy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)580-591
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Volume9
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012

Fingerprint

Endotoxins
Particulate Matter
Waste Management
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Humidity
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Agriculture
Particle Size
Gas Chromatography
Cell Wall
Lipopolysaccharides
Respiration

Keywords

  • 3-OHFA
  • Agriculture
  • Dairy
  • Endotoxin
  • Particulate matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Characterization of endotoxin collected on California dairies using personal and area-based sampling methods. / Garcia, John; Bennett, Deborah H; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schenker, Marc B; Mitchell, Diane C.; Reynolds, Stephen J.; Silva, Rona; Dooley, Gregory P.; Mehaffy, John; Mitloehner, Frank M.

In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Vol. 9, No. 10, 2012, p. 580-591.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Garcia, John ; Bennett, Deborah H ; Tancredi, Daniel J ; Schenker, Marc B ; Mitchell, Diane C. ; Reynolds, Stephen J. ; Silva, Rona ; Dooley, Gregory P. ; Mehaffy, John ; Mitloehner, Frank M. / Characterization of endotoxin collected on California dairies using personal and area-based sampling methods. In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2012 ; Vol. 9, No. 10. pp. 580-591.
@article{9107ac90dcde414d8e4ab7dcd0fc5591,
title = "Characterization of endotoxin collected on California dairies using personal and area-based sampling methods",
abstract = "Endotoxin, found in the cell wall of gram negative bacteria, is an important contributor to the biological activity of agriculture particulate matter (PM). We analyzed endotoxin in PM collected on 13 California dairies and from the breathing zone of 226 workers during the summer months of 2008. Two particle size fractions were measured: PM2.5 and inhalable PM. Recombinant factor C assays were used to analyze biologically active endotoxin, while gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem was used to quantify total lipopolysaccharide. Biologically active endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable PM size fraction from area-based samples ranged from 11-2095 EU/m3 and from 45-2061 EU/m3 for personal samples. Total endotoxin in the inhalable PM size fraction ranged from 75-10,166 pmol/m 3 for area-based samples and 34-11,689 pmol/m3 for personal samples. Area-based geometric mean concentrations for biologically active endotoxin and total endotoxin in PM2.5 and inhalable PM size fractions were 3 EU/m3,149 EU/m3,60pmol/m3, and 515pmol/m3, respectively. Personal geometric mean concentrations in the inhalable PM size fraction were 334 EU/m3, and 1178 pmol/m 3. Biologically active and total endotoxin concentration variation was best explained by meteorological data, wind speed, relative humidity, and dairy waste management practices. Differences in endotoxin concentration and composition were found across locations on the dairy.",
keywords = "3-OHFA, Agriculture, Dairy, Endotoxin, Particulate matter",
author = "John Garcia and Bennett, {Deborah H} and Tancredi, {Daniel J} and Schenker, {Marc B} and Mitchell, {Diane C.} and Reynolds, {Stephen J.} and Rona Silva and Dooley, {Gregory P.} and John Mehaffy and Mitloehner, {Frank M.}",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1080/15459624.2012.713301",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "9",
pages = "580--591",
journal = "Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene",
issn = "1545-9624",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of endotoxin collected on California dairies using personal and area-based sampling methods

AU - Garcia, John

AU - Bennett, Deborah H

AU - Tancredi, Daniel J

AU - Schenker, Marc B

AU - Mitchell, Diane C.

AU - Reynolds, Stephen J.

AU - Silva, Rona

AU - Dooley, Gregory P.

AU - Mehaffy, John

AU - Mitloehner, Frank M.

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Endotoxin, found in the cell wall of gram negative bacteria, is an important contributor to the biological activity of agriculture particulate matter (PM). We analyzed endotoxin in PM collected on 13 California dairies and from the breathing zone of 226 workers during the summer months of 2008. Two particle size fractions were measured: PM2.5 and inhalable PM. Recombinant factor C assays were used to analyze biologically active endotoxin, while gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem was used to quantify total lipopolysaccharide. Biologically active endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable PM size fraction from area-based samples ranged from 11-2095 EU/m3 and from 45-2061 EU/m3 for personal samples. Total endotoxin in the inhalable PM size fraction ranged from 75-10,166 pmol/m 3 for area-based samples and 34-11,689 pmol/m3 for personal samples. Area-based geometric mean concentrations for biologically active endotoxin and total endotoxin in PM2.5 and inhalable PM size fractions were 3 EU/m3,149 EU/m3,60pmol/m3, and 515pmol/m3, respectively. Personal geometric mean concentrations in the inhalable PM size fraction were 334 EU/m3, and 1178 pmol/m 3. Biologically active and total endotoxin concentration variation was best explained by meteorological data, wind speed, relative humidity, and dairy waste management practices. Differences in endotoxin concentration and composition were found across locations on the dairy.

AB - Endotoxin, found in the cell wall of gram negative bacteria, is an important contributor to the biological activity of agriculture particulate matter (PM). We analyzed endotoxin in PM collected on 13 California dairies and from the breathing zone of 226 workers during the summer months of 2008. Two particle size fractions were measured: PM2.5 and inhalable PM. Recombinant factor C assays were used to analyze biologically active endotoxin, while gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem was used to quantify total lipopolysaccharide. Biologically active endotoxin concentrations in the inhalable PM size fraction from area-based samples ranged from 11-2095 EU/m3 and from 45-2061 EU/m3 for personal samples. Total endotoxin in the inhalable PM size fraction ranged from 75-10,166 pmol/m 3 for area-based samples and 34-11,689 pmol/m3 for personal samples. Area-based geometric mean concentrations for biologically active endotoxin and total endotoxin in PM2.5 and inhalable PM size fractions were 3 EU/m3,149 EU/m3,60pmol/m3, and 515pmol/m3, respectively. Personal geometric mean concentrations in the inhalable PM size fraction were 334 EU/m3, and 1178 pmol/m 3. Biologically active and total endotoxin concentration variation was best explained by meteorological data, wind speed, relative humidity, and dairy waste management practices. Differences in endotoxin concentration and composition were found across locations on the dairy.

KW - 3-OHFA

KW - Agriculture

KW - Dairy

KW - Endotoxin

KW - Particulate matter

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84867173744&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84867173744&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/15459624.2012.713301

DO - 10.1080/15459624.2012.713301

M3 - Article

C2 - 22946649

AN - SCOPUS:84867173744

VL - 9

SP - 580

EP - 591

JO - Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

JF - Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

SN - 1545-9624

IS - 10

ER -