Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia in dogs

R. C. Windsor, Beverly Sturges, Karen Vernau, William Vernau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Marked eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalomyelitis (EME) is rarely reported in dogs and the cause is usually undetermined. Long-term prognosis for dogs with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia is variable. Animals: Twenty-three client-owned dogs. Methods: Retrospective case series. Dogs with eosinophilic CSF, defined as total nucleated cell count (TNCC) >3 cells/mL with >20% eosinophils, were identified by a computerized search of all dogs having cisternal and/or lumbar CSF analyzed as part of the diagnostic workup between 1992 and 2007. Results: TNCC in CSF ranged from 4 to 4,740cells/μL (median 84cells/μL, reference range ≤3 cells/μL), with 22 to 95% (median 78%) eosinophils in the differential count. An infectious agent was identified on necropsy in 4 of 23 (17%) dogs (Cryptococcus neoformans [n = 2], Neospora caninum [n = 1], and Baylisascaris procyonis [n = 1]). Each of these dogs had progressive neurologic deterioration. Sixteen dogs had idiopathic EME. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were abnormal in 7 of 13 dogs with EME; 2 dogs had focal lesions and 5 dogs had multifocal lesions. Clinical signs in 12 of 16 (75%) dogs with idiopathic EME resolved with prednisone treatment. Three dogs with acute intervertebral disc herniations recovered after decompressive surgery alone. Conclusions: Idiopathic EME is a common cause of eosinophilic pleocytosis in dogs. MRI findings are variable. Infectious causes of EME were less common and had a poor prognosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-281
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume23
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2009

Fingerprint

eosinophilia
Eosinophilia
cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Dogs
dogs
eosinophils
magnetic resonance imaging
Eosinophils
lesions (animal)
prognosis
Ascaridoidea
Baylisascaris procyonis
Cell Count
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
cells
Neospora
prednisone
intervertebral disks
Cryptococcus neoformans

Keywords

  • CSF analysis
  • Eosinophil
  • Meningitis
  • MRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia in dogs. / Windsor, R. C.; Sturges, Beverly; Vernau, Karen; Vernau, William.

In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 2, 03.2009, p. 275-281.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Windsor, R. C. ; Sturges, Beverly ; Vernau, Karen ; Vernau, William. / Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia in dogs. In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2009 ; Vol. 23, No. 2. pp. 275-281.
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abstract = "Background: Marked eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalomyelitis (EME) is rarely reported in dogs and the cause is usually undetermined. Long-term prognosis for dogs with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia is variable. Animals: Twenty-three client-owned dogs. Methods: Retrospective case series. Dogs with eosinophilic CSF, defined as total nucleated cell count (TNCC) >3 cells/mL with >20{\%} eosinophils, were identified by a computerized search of all dogs having cisternal and/or lumbar CSF analyzed as part of the diagnostic workup between 1992 and 2007. Results: TNCC in CSF ranged from 4 to 4,740cells/μL (median 84cells/μL, reference range ≤3 cells/μL), with 22 to 95{\%} (median 78{\%}) eosinophils in the differential count. An infectious agent was identified on necropsy in 4 of 23 (17{\%}) dogs (Cryptococcus neoformans [n = 2], Neospora caninum [n = 1], and Baylisascaris procyonis [n = 1]). Each of these dogs had progressive neurologic deterioration. Sixteen dogs had idiopathic EME. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were abnormal in 7 of 13 dogs with EME; 2 dogs had focal lesions and 5 dogs had multifocal lesions. Clinical signs in 12 of 16 (75{\%}) dogs with idiopathic EME resolved with prednisone treatment. Three dogs with acute intervertebral disc herniations recovered after decompressive surgery alone. Conclusions: Idiopathic EME is a common cause of eosinophilic pleocytosis in dogs. MRI findings are variable. Infectious causes of EME were less common and had a poor prognosis.",
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