Central vestibular disease in a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) with cerebral infarction and hemorrhage

Claire Grosset, David Guzman, M. Kelly Keating, Patricia M. Gaffney, Linda J Lowenstine, Allison Zwingenberger, Alex C. Young, Karen Vernau, Amberly M. Sokoloff, Michelle Hawkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A 24-year-old female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was presented for an acute onset of left head tilt. On examination, the macaw was dehydrated and had a 120-degree left head tilt, decreased proprioception of the left pelvic limb, and intermittent vertical nystagmus. Results of hematologic testing and biochemical analysis revealed severe leukocytosis with lymphopenia and heterophilia and a high uric acid concentration. Radiographs showed bilateral intertarsal joint osteoarthritis and a healed ulnar fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed focal T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense lesions in the right cerebral hemisphere and in the midbrain. The midbrain lesion showed susceptibility artifact on the T2* sequence, suggesting hemorrhage. In the T2* sequence, iron accumulation (as seen with hemorrhage) distorts the magnetic signal, resulting in the production of a susceptibility artifact, which can then be visualized as a region of hypointensity. The bird was hospitalized but died despite intensive care. Necropsy revealed multiple cerebral vascular lesions including an acute cerebral infarct, a ruptured midbrain aneurysm, and multifocal systemic atherosclerosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cerebral aneurysm in a bird. This report correlates the clinical presentation, imaging, and histopathologic findings in a macaw with central vestibular disease and demonstrates how advanced imaging techniques can identify hemorrhagic lesions through the T2* sequence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)132-142
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Volume28
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Vestibular Diseases
Ara ararauna
infarction
Cerebral Infarction
Cerebral Hemorrhage
Mesencephalon
lesions (animal)
Gold
hemorrhage
brain
aneurysm
Artifacts
Birds
Tarsal Joints
Head
Hemorrhage
Pathologic Nystagmus
Proprioception
Lymphopenia
Ruptured Aneurysm

Keywords

  • aneurysm
  • Ara ararauna
  • atherosclerosis
  • avian
  • bird
  • blue and gold macaw
  • infarction
  • ischemic stroke
  • vestibular disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals

Cite this

Central vestibular disease in a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) with cerebral infarction and hemorrhage. / Grosset, Claire; Guzman, David; Keating, M. Kelly; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Lowenstine, Linda J; Zwingenberger, Allison; Young, Alex C.; Vernau, Karen; Sokoloff, Amberly M.; Hawkins, Michelle.

In: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2014, p. 132-142.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Grosset, Claire ; Guzman, David ; Keating, M. Kelly ; Gaffney, Patricia M. ; Lowenstine, Linda J ; Zwingenberger, Allison ; Young, Alex C. ; Vernau, Karen ; Sokoloff, Amberly M. ; Hawkins, Michelle. / Central vestibular disease in a blue and gold macaw (ara ararauna) with cerebral infarction and hemorrhage. In: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 2014 ; Vol. 28, No. 2. pp. 132-142.
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