Cefadroxil in the horse: pharmacokinetics and in vitro antibacterial activity.

William D Wilson, J. D. Baggot, P. J. Adamson, D. C. Hirsh, S. K. Hietala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sodium cefadroxil was administered as a single intravenous dose (25 mg/kg) to six healthy adult mares. Plasma samples were collected over a 24-h period and cefadroxil concentrations were measured by microbiological assay. The pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug was appropriately described in terms of a one-compartment open model. Values for the major pharmacokinetic terms were: extrapolated initial plasma concentration = 59.2 +/- 15.0 micrograms/ml; half-life = 46 +/- 20 min; apparent volume of distribution = 462 +/- 191 ml/kg; and body clearance = 7.0 +/- 0.6 ml/min.kg. In a subsequent study, a suspension of cefadroxil monohydrate was administered intragastrically (25 mg/kg) to the same six horses. Plasma concentrations of the drug peaked at 1-2 h but, in general, absorption was both poor and inconsistent. The data were unsuitable for determination of cefadroxil bioavailability from this oral dosage form. Ninety-nine isolates of eleven bacterial species obtained from clinically ill horses were tested for susceptibility to cefadroxil. All strains of Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and five out of six strains of Actinobacillus suis were highly susceptible to the drug (MIC less than 4 micrograms/ml). Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella sp. showed intermediate susceptibility (MIC 4-16 micrograms/ml), while all isolates of Corynebacterium (Rhodococcus) equi, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa proved to be highly resistant to cefadroxil (MIC greater than 128 micrograms/ml).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)246-253
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume8
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1985

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • veterinary(all)

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