Practical relevance: Calcium oxalate (CaOx) containing stones are among the most common of the urinary tract stones identified in cats. Risk factors: Risk factors for CaOx stone formation include such things as breed, gender and diet; stress and obesity have also been hypothesized to be risk factors for this disease. Management approach: A tailored, individual management strategy for preventing CaOx stone recurrence is important and should include addressing the diet, environment and any other comorbid conditions present. Increasing the cat's moisture intake is one of the key mechanisms for preventing recurrence. Clinical challenges: CaOx ureterolithiasis has emerged as a difficult and sometimes life-threatening problem for cats. In those cats where stones are found incidentally, periodic monitoring may be required to assess for disease progression. Interventional procedures such as ureteral stent placements are now increasingly being performed for recurrent cases or those with larger stone burdens. Periodic radiographs for more severe cases and frequent client communication can help ensure successful outcomes for cats with lower and upper CaOx stone disease. Evidence base: Limited evidence-based studies are published regarding management of feline upper and lower urinary tract CaOx stone disease, making this a difficult condition to manage in some cats. Studies designed to evaluate the relationship to dietary modifications, medical management, stress, obesity and surgical techniques are warranted in cats with upper and lower urinary tract CaOx stones.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Small Animals