Electrical activity in neurons requires a seamless functional coupling between plasmalemmal ion channels and ion transporters. Although ion channels have been studied intensively for several decades, research on ion transporters is in its infancy. In recent years, it has become evident that one family of ion transporters, cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs), and in particular K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (KCC2), have seminal roles in shaping GABAergic signalling and neuronal connectivity. Studying the functions of these transporters may lead to major paradigm shifts in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying brain development and plasticity in health and disease.
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