Eighty-three wild and domestic carnivores of nine species from Janos Biosphere Reserve (JBR), Mexico, were tested by serologic and molecular assays to determine exposure and infection rates of carnivore protoparvovirus 1. Overall, 50.8% (33/65) of the wild carnivores and 100% (18/18) of the domestic dogs tested were seropositive for Canine protoparvovirus 1 (CPV), while 23% (15/65) of the wild carnivores and 22.2% (4/18) of the domestic dogs were PCR positive for CPV. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed circulation of CVP-2 with residues 426 Asn (CPV2a = 1/19) and 426 Glu (CPV-2c = 18/19) among carnivores in JBR. The prevalence of both PCR positivity and antibodies to CPV varied significantly among wild host species. Of the six identified haplotypes, three were unique to kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) (the species with higher haplotype richness) and two to striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). The remaining haplotype was shared among all carnivore species including dogs suggesting non-host specificity and bidirectional and continuous viral transmission cycle in the JBR. The phylogenetic similarity of CPV strains from dogs and wild carnivores and the higher prevalence of CPV in wild carnivores captured near towns relative to those captured far from towns suggest that dogs might be an important source of CPV infection for wild carnivores in the JBR. We provide evidence that cross-species transmission occurs at the domestic–wildlife interface in JBR.
- Carnivore protoparvovirus
- Domestic–wildlife interface
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis