Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among men and women in Western societies. Over the past decade, interest in a better understanding of gender differences in cardiovascular disease has heightened. Concomitantly, the use of hormone therapy for cardiovascular risk reduction in postmenopausal women has come into question in light of recent landmark clinical studies casting doubt on the benefits of this therapy. As a consequence, alternatives to conventional hormone replacement, including selective estrogen receptor modulators and phytoestrogens, have attracted considerable attention. The authors provide an up-to-date review of the clinical actions of selective estrogen receptor modulators on cardiovascular disease. The actions of tamoxifen, raloxifene, droloxifene, and soy phytoestrogens are discussed in the context of cardiovascular disease epidemiology, coronary events, clinical markers of cardiovascular risk, and vascular function. In addition, the authors' current understanding of the mechanism of action of these agents is discussed and recommendations for clinical practice are reviewed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine