Cardiorenal Syndrome. Diagnosis and Management

João S. Orvalho, Larry D Cowgill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) has not been well characterized in veterinary medicine, yet an accurate appreciation of the kidney and the cardiovascular system and their interactions may have practical clinical implications. A consensus for cardiovascular-renal axis disorders of dogs and cats was recently attempted. The outcome of patients with CRS is likely to improve with the increasing awareness and ability to identify and understand the pathophysiologic characteristics of CRS. The utilization of existing and emerging organ-specific biomarkers with greater sensitivities than conventional diagnostics forecast new opportunities to diagnose and manage cardiac disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice
StateAccepted/In press - 2017


  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiorenal syndrome
  • Cardiovascular-renal axis disorders
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Heart failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals


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