Carbohydrate materials have become increasingly utilized in transplantation and cell/tissue engineering within the past year. This has been well documented in recent applications of immobilized or soluble α-galactosyl epitopes (i.e. oligosaccharides with a terminal Galα1-3Gal sequence) in preventing hyperacute rejection in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. In addition, α-galactosyl polymers have been shown to exhibit much greater activity (up to 104 times) than α-galactosyl monomers in inhibiting the binding of anti-galactosyl antibodies to pig kidney epithelial cells and assisting in the prevention of cytotoxicity in human serum.
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