Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women

Katie A. Meyer, Lawrence H. Kushi, David R. Jacobs, Joanne Slavin, Thomas A. Sellers, Aaron R. Folsom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

889 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Dietary carbohydrates may influence the development of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, for example, through effects on blood glucose and insulin concentrations. Objective: We examined the relations of baseline intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, dietary magnesium, and carbohydrate-rich foods and the glycemic index with incidence of diabetes. Design: This was a prospective cohort study of 35988 older Iowa women initially free of diabetes. During 6 y of follow-up, 1141 incident cases of diabetes were reported. Results: Total grain, whole-grain, total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium intakes showed strong inverse associations with incidence of diabetes after adjustment for potential nondietary confounding variables. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks of diabetes were 1.0, 0.99, 0.98, 0.92, and 0.79 (P for trend: 0.0089) across quintiles of whole-grain intake; 1.0, 1.09, 1.00, 0.94, and 0.78 (P for trend: 0.005) across quintiles of total dietary fiber intake; and 1.0, 0.81, 0.82, 0.81, and 0.67 (P for trend: 0.0003) across quintiles of dietary magnesium intake. Intakes of total carbohydrates, refined grains, fruit and vegetables, and soluble fiber and the glycemic index were unrelated to diabetes risk. Conclusion: These data support a protective role for grains (particularly whole grains), cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium in the development of diabetes in older women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)921-930
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume71
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2000
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Dietary Fiber
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
diabetes
dietary fiber
Magnesium
Carbohydrates
carbohydrates
Dietary Carbohydrates
Glycemic Index
magnesium
glycemic index
whole grain foods
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Incidence
Vegetables
refined grains
Blood Glucose
grain consumption
Fruit

Keywords

  • Carbohydrates
  • Diet
  • Dietary fiber
  • Glycemic index
  • Grains
  • Iowa Women's Health Study
  • Magnesium
  • Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
  • Nutrition
  • Prospective studies
  • Sugar
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Meyer, K. A., Kushi, L. H., Jacobs, D. R., Slavin, J., Sellers, T. A., & Folsom, A. R. (2000). Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(4), 921-930.

Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. / Meyer, Katie A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Jacobs, David R.; Slavin, Joanne; Sellers, Thomas A.; Folsom, Aaron R.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 4, 04.2000, p. 921-930.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Meyer, KA, Kushi, LH, Jacobs, DR, Slavin, J, Sellers, TA & Folsom, AR 2000, 'Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 921-930.
Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR, Slavin J, Sellers TA, Folsom AR. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000 Apr;71(4):921-930.
Meyer, Katie A. ; Kushi, Lawrence H. ; Jacobs, David R. ; Slavin, Joanne ; Sellers, Thomas A. ; Folsom, Aaron R. / Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000 ; Vol. 71, No. 4. pp. 921-930.
@article{42f14ef332b347e7aa360ef34a6ba8f2,
title = "Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women",
abstract = "Background: Dietary carbohydrates may influence the development of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, for example, through effects on blood glucose and insulin concentrations. Objective: We examined the relations of baseline intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, dietary magnesium, and carbohydrate-rich foods and the glycemic index with incidence of diabetes. Design: This was a prospective cohort study of 35988 older Iowa women initially free of diabetes. During 6 y of follow-up, 1141 incident cases of diabetes were reported. Results: Total grain, whole-grain, total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium intakes showed strong inverse associations with incidence of diabetes after adjustment for potential nondietary confounding variables. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks of diabetes were 1.0, 0.99, 0.98, 0.92, and 0.79 (P for trend: 0.0089) across quintiles of whole-grain intake; 1.0, 1.09, 1.00, 0.94, and 0.78 (P for trend: 0.005) across quintiles of total dietary fiber intake; and 1.0, 0.81, 0.82, 0.81, and 0.67 (P for trend: 0.0003) across quintiles of dietary magnesium intake. Intakes of total carbohydrates, refined grains, fruit and vegetables, and soluble fiber and the glycemic index were unrelated to diabetes risk. Conclusion: These data support a protective role for grains (particularly whole grains), cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium in the development of diabetes in older women.",
keywords = "Carbohydrates, Diet, Dietary fiber, Glycemic index, Grains, Iowa Women's Health Study, Magnesium, Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Nutrition, Prospective studies, Sugar, Type 2 diabetes, Women",
author = "Meyer, {Katie A.} and Kushi, {Lawrence H.} and Jacobs, {David R.} and Joanne Slavin and Sellers, {Thomas A.} and Folsom, {Aaron R.}",
year = "2000",
month = "4",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "71",
pages = "921--930",
journal = "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women

AU - Meyer, Katie A.

AU - Kushi, Lawrence H.

AU - Jacobs, David R.

AU - Slavin, Joanne

AU - Sellers, Thomas A.

AU - Folsom, Aaron R.

PY - 2000/4

Y1 - 2000/4

N2 - Background: Dietary carbohydrates may influence the development of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, for example, through effects on blood glucose and insulin concentrations. Objective: We examined the relations of baseline intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, dietary magnesium, and carbohydrate-rich foods and the glycemic index with incidence of diabetes. Design: This was a prospective cohort study of 35988 older Iowa women initially free of diabetes. During 6 y of follow-up, 1141 incident cases of diabetes were reported. Results: Total grain, whole-grain, total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium intakes showed strong inverse associations with incidence of diabetes after adjustment for potential nondietary confounding variables. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks of diabetes were 1.0, 0.99, 0.98, 0.92, and 0.79 (P for trend: 0.0089) across quintiles of whole-grain intake; 1.0, 1.09, 1.00, 0.94, and 0.78 (P for trend: 0.005) across quintiles of total dietary fiber intake; and 1.0, 0.81, 0.82, 0.81, and 0.67 (P for trend: 0.0003) across quintiles of dietary magnesium intake. Intakes of total carbohydrates, refined grains, fruit and vegetables, and soluble fiber and the glycemic index were unrelated to diabetes risk. Conclusion: These data support a protective role for grains (particularly whole grains), cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium in the development of diabetes in older women.

AB - Background: Dietary carbohydrates may influence the development of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, for example, through effects on blood glucose and insulin concentrations. Objective: We examined the relations of baseline intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, dietary magnesium, and carbohydrate-rich foods and the glycemic index with incidence of diabetes. Design: This was a prospective cohort study of 35988 older Iowa women initially free of diabetes. During 6 y of follow-up, 1141 incident cases of diabetes were reported. Results: Total grain, whole-grain, total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium intakes showed strong inverse associations with incidence of diabetes after adjustment for potential nondietary confounding variables. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks of diabetes were 1.0, 0.99, 0.98, 0.92, and 0.79 (P for trend: 0.0089) across quintiles of whole-grain intake; 1.0, 1.09, 1.00, 0.94, and 0.78 (P for trend: 0.005) across quintiles of total dietary fiber intake; and 1.0, 0.81, 0.82, 0.81, and 0.67 (P for trend: 0.0003) across quintiles of dietary magnesium intake. Intakes of total carbohydrates, refined grains, fruit and vegetables, and soluble fiber and the glycemic index were unrelated to diabetes risk. Conclusion: These data support a protective role for grains (particularly whole grains), cereal fiber, and dietary magnesium in the development of diabetes in older women.

KW - Carbohydrates

KW - Diet

KW - Dietary fiber

KW - Glycemic index

KW - Grains

KW - Iowa Women's Health Study

KW - Magnesium

KW - Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

KW - Nutrition

KW - Prospective studies

KW - Sugar

KW - Type 2 diabetes

KW - Women

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034122983&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034122983&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 71

SP - 921

EP - 930

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 4

ER -