Purpose: To conduct a literature review of candidate protein biomarkers for individual radiation biodosimetry of exposure to ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: Reviewed ∼300 publications (1973 - April 2006) that reported protein effects in mammalian systems after either in vivo or in vitro radiation exposure. Results: We found 261 radiation-responsive proteins including 173 human proteins. Most of the studies used high doses of ionizing radiation (>4 Gy) and had no information on dose- or time-responses. The majority of the proteins showed increased amounts or changes in phosphorylation states within 24 h after exposure (range: 1.5- to 10-fold). Of the 47 proteins that are responsive at doses of 1 Gy and below, 6 showed phosphorylation changes at doses below 10 cGy. Proteins were assigned to 9 groups based on consistency of response across species, dose- and time-response information and known role in the radiation damage response. Conclusions: ATM (Ataxia telengiectasia mutated), H2AX (histone 2AX), CDKN1A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A), and TP53 (tumor protein 53) are top candidate radiation protein biomarkers. Furthermore, we recommend a panel of protein biomarkers, each with different dose and time optima, to improve individual radiation biodosimetry for discriminating between low-, moderate-, and high-dose exposures. Our findings have applications for early triage and follow-up medical assessments.
- Radiation response
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering