Michelle Hawkins, Ashley M. Zehnder, Peter J Pascoe

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Scopus citations


The anesthesia of caged of birds is unique not only from the aspect of anatomy and physiology, but also due to unique requirements for anesthetic equipment, monitoring, and species-specific pharmacology. The medical history and husbandry of the pet bird is essential for preanesthetic evaluation. Body temperature is monitored continuously throughout anesthesia. Appropriate means of physical restraint must be assessed for each patient and appropriate stabilization and supportive care prepared prior to handling. Sedatives and tranquilizers are used to decrease anxiety and fear during induction. However, most tranquilizers lack analgesia. Injectable anesthetics are more commonly used in the field due to the ease of transport compared with inhalant anesthetic delivery equipment. Birds may be more sensitive to the toxic effects of local anesthetics than mammals. Due to the rapid rate at which birds may decompensate under anesthesia, monitoring is the most important aspect of avian anesthesia body weight.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationZoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia: Second Edition
PublisherWiley Blackwell
Number of pages35
ISBN (Print)9781118792919, 9780813811833
StatePublished - Sep 15 2014


  • Analgesia
  • Anesthesia
  • Cagebirds
  • Injectable anesthetics
  • Local anesthetics
  • Preanesthetic supportive care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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