Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec

Terry G. Powis, Ann Cyphers, Nilesh W. Gaikwad, Louis Grivetti, Kong Cheong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use - spanning more than 34 centuries - as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BCE, and documents assorted vessels forms used in its preparation and consumption. One elite context reveals cacao use as part of a mortuary ritual for sacrificial victims, an event that occurred during the height of San Lorenzo's power.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8595-8600
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume108
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - May 24 2011

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Cacao
Theobromine
Ceremonial Behavior
Economics

Keywords

  • Chemistry
  • Chocolate
  • Mexico
  • Residue analysis
  • Tandem mass spectrometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Powis, T. G., Cyphers, A., Gaikwad, N. W., Grivetti, L., & Cheong, K. (2011). Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(21), 8595-8600. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1100620108

Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec. / Powis, Terry G.; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 108, No. 21, 24.05.2011, p. 8595-8600.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Powis, TG, Cyphers, A, Gaikwad, NW, Grivetti, L & Cheong, K 2011, 'Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 21, pp. 8595-8600. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1100620108
Powis, Terry G. ; Cyphers, Ann ; Gaikwad, Nilesh W. ; Grivetti, Louis ; Cheong, Kong. / Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2011 ; Vol. 108, No. 21. pp. 8595-8600.
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