Immunofluorescence detection of the complement split product C4d along peritubular capillaries in renal allograft biopsies is the mainstay for the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection. The extent of peritubular capillary C4d positivity may have significant clinical ramifications; however, peritubular capillary density in the renal cortex is often difficult to assess with single-channel immunofluorescence. In this study, we report a C4d/CD34 double-immunofluorescence staining protocol for renal allograft frozen sections that allows rapid and sensitive detection of C4d positivity, as well as improved accuracy in estimating the C4d-positive fraction of peritubular capillaries. In addition, this method aids in determining whether C4d-positive structures correspond to peritubular capillaries or whether they represent common mimics of peritubular capillaries such as tubular basement membranes. C4d/CD34 double immunofluorescence provides rapid, convenient, and low-cost implementation for laboratories currently utilizing single-channel C4d immunofluorescence.
- antibody mediated
- peritubular capillaries
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine