Branchial remnant cysts of mature and juvenile horses

R. D. Nolen-Walston, E. J. Parente, John E Madigan, F. David, S. E. Knafo, J. B. Engiles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This clinical report describes 8 cases of branchial remnant cysts (BRC) in the horse. The horses presented with bimodal age distribution, with 5 cases in mature horses (age 8-21 years) and 3 in foals (age 1, 6 and 10 months). Mature cases presented for dysphagia or intermittent oesophageal obstruction (2/5), and retropharyngeal swelling (3/5), whereas respiratory stridor and visible mass were presenting complaints in the foals. Presence of a right-sided (5/8) or dorsally located (2/8) palpable retropharyngeal mass of 3-35 cm diameter was noted clinically; one left-sided mass was identified as an incidental finding at necropsy. Ultrasonography typically revealed a thick-walled cyst containing hypoechoic fluid with dependent hyperechoic masses consistent with blood clots. Radiographs and upper airway endoscopy were also consistent with a retropharyngeal mass. Fluid cytology revealed chronic haemorrhage in 6/8 cases, and squamous epithelial cells in one case. Histopathology in all cases demonstrated an epithelium-lined cyst with no smooth muscle or thyroid tissue. Two cases was subjected to euthanasia; one due to concurrent laryngeal anomalies and one due to financial constraints. The remaining 5 cases were treated via surgical excision. Post operatively, right laryngeal hemiplegia was observed in 4/5 cases. All previous reports of BRC in the horse have described juvenile individuals. Brachial remnant cyst should be considered a differential diagnosis for mature horses with masses of the throatlatch area and can be definitively diagnosed by the presence of squamous epithelium in aspirated fluid or by histopathology of the excised mass. Right recurrent laryngeal nerve damage is a common complication of surgery. 2009 EVJ Ltd.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)918-923
Number of pages6
JournalEquine Veterinary Journal
Volume41
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2009

Fingerprint

Branchioma
Horses
horses
Cysts
Epithelium
foals
histopathology
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
Incidental Findings
Hemiplegia
Euthanasia
epithelium
Age Distribution
Respiratory Sounds
Deglutition Disorders
Endoscopy
Smooth Muscle
Cell Biology
Ultrasonography
excision

Keywords

  • Cervical cyst
  • Congenital anomaly
  • Horse
  • Lymphoepithelial
  • Neural crest
  • Parotid
  • Thyroglossal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Equine

Cite this

Nolen-Walston, R. D., Parente, E. J., Madigan, J. E., David, F., Knafo, S. E., & Engiles, J. B. (2009). Branchial remnant cysts of mature and juvenile horses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 41(9), 918-923. https://doi.org/10.2746/042516409X452161

Branchial remnant cysts of mature and juvenile horses. / Nolen-Walston, R. D.; Parente, E. J.; Madigan, John E; David, F.; Knafo, S. E.; Engiles, J. B.

In: Equine Veterinary Journal, Vol. 41, No. 9, 12.2009, p. 918-923.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nolen-Walston, RD, Parente, EJ, Madigan, JE, David, F, Knafo, SE & Engiles, JB 2009, 'Branchial remnant cysts of mature and juvenile horses', Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 918-923. https://doi.org/10.2746/042516409X452161
Nolen-Walston RD, Parente EJ, Madigan JE, David F, Knafo SE, Engiles JB. Branchial remnant cysts of mature and juvenile horses. Equine Veterinary Journal. 2009 Dec;41(9):918-923. https://doi.org/10.2746/042516409X452161
Nolen-Walston, R. D. ; Parente, E. J. ; Madigan, John E ; David, F. ; Knafo, S. E. ; Engiles, J. B. / Branchial remnant cysts of mature and juvenile horses. In: Equine Veterinary Journal. 2009 ; Vol. 41, No. 9. pp. 918-923.
@article{a7200fa15a3d42808c59d1c842eb20cf,
title = "Branchial remnant cysts of mature and juvenile horses",
abstract = "This clinical report describes 8 cases of branchial remnant cysts (BRC) in the horse. The horses presented with bimodal age distribution, with 5 cases in mature horses (age 8-21 years) and 3 in foals (age 1, 6 and 10 months). Mature cases presented for dysphagia or intermittent oesophageal obstruction (2/5), and retropharyngeal swelling (3/5), whereas respiratory stridor and visible mass were presenting complaints in the foals. Presence of a right-sided (5/8) or dorsally located (2/8) palpable retropharyngeal mass of 3-35 cm diameter was noted clinically; one left-sided mass was identified as an incidental finding at necropsy. Ultrasonography typically revealed a thick-walled cyst containing hypoechoic fluid with dependent hyperechoic masses consistent with blood clots. Radiographs and upper airway endoscopy were also consistent with a retropharyngeal mass. Fluid cytology revealed chronic haemorrhage in 6/8 cases, and squamous epithelial cells in one case. Histopathology in all cases demonstrated an epithelium-lined cyst with no smooth muscle or thyroid tissue. Two cases was subjected to euthanasia; one due to concurrent laryngeal anomalies and one due to financial constraints. The remaining 5 cases were treated via surgical excision. Post operatively, right laryngeal hemiplegia was observed in 4/5 cases. All previous reports of BRC in the horse have described juvenile individuals. Brachial remnant cyst should be considered a differential diagnosis for mature horses with masses of the throatlatch area and can be definitively diagnosed by the presence of squamous epithelium in aspirated fluid or by histopathology of the excised mass. Right recurrent laryngeal nerve damage is a common complication of surgery. 2009 EVJ Ltd.",
keywords = "Cervical cyst, Congenital anomaly, Horse, Lymphoepithelial, Neural crest, Parotid, Thyroglossal",
author = "Nolen-Walston, {R. D.} and Parente, {E. J.} and Madigan, {John E} and F. David and Knafo, {S. E.} and Engiles, {J. B.}",
year = "2009",
month = "12",
doi = "10.2746/042516409X452161",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "41",
pages = "918--923",
journal = "Equine veterinary journal. Supplement",
issn = "2042-3306",
publisher = "British Equine Veterinary Association",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Branchial remnant cysts of mature and juvenile horses

AU - Nolen-Walston, R. D.

AU - Parente, E. J.

AU - Madigan, John E

AU - David, F.

AU - Knafo, S. E.

AU - Engiles, J. B.

PY - 2009/12

Y1 - 2009/12

N2 - This clinical report describes 8 cases of branchial remnant cysts (BRC) in the horse. The horses presented with bimodal age distribution, with 5 cases in mature horses (age 8-21 years) and 3 in foals (age 1, 6 and 10 months). Mature cases presented for dysphagia or intermittent oesophageal obstruction (2/5), and retropharyngeal swelling (3/5), whereas respiratory stridor and visible mass were presenting complaints in the foals. Presence of a right-sided (5/8) or dorsally located (2/8) palpable retropharyngeal mass of 3-35 cm diameter was noted clinically; one left-sided mass was identified as an incidental finding at necropsy. Ultrasonography typically revealed a thick-walled cyst containing hypoechoic fluid with dependent hyperechoic masses consistent with blood clots. Radiographs and upper airway endoscopy were also consistent with a retropharyngeal mass. Fluid cytology revealed chronic haemorrhage in 6/8 cases, and squamous epithelial cells in one case. Histopathology in all cases demonstrated an epithelium-lined cyst with no smooth muscle or thyroid tissue. Two cases was subjected to euthanasia; one due to concurrent laryngeal anomalies and one due to financial constraints. The remaining 5 cases were treated via surgical excision. Post operatively, right laryngeal hemiplegia was observed in 4/5 cases. All previous reports of BRC in the horse have described juvenile individuals. Brachial remnant cyst should be considered a differential diagnosis for mature horses with masses of the throatlatch area and can be definitively diagnosed by the presence of squamous epithelium in aspirated fluid or by histopathology of the excised mass. Right recurrent laryngeal nerve damage is a common complication of surgery. 2009 EVJ Ltd.

AB - This clinical report describes 8 cases of branchial remnant cysts (BRC) in the horse. The horses presented with bimodal age distribution, with 5 cases in mature horses (age 8-21 years) and 3 in foals (age 1, 6 and 10 months). Mature cases presented for dysphagia or intermittent oesophageal obstruction (2/5), and retropharyngeal swelling (3/5), whereas respiratory stridor and visible mass were presenting complaints in the foals. Presence of a right-sided (5/8) or dorsally located (2/8) palpable retropharyngeal mass of 3-35 cm diameter was noted clinically; one left-sided mass was identified as an incidental finding at necropsy. Ultrasonography typically revealed a thick-walled cyst containing hypoechoic fluid with dependent hyperechoic masses consistent with blood clots. Radiographs and upper airway endoscopy were also consistent with a retropharyngeal mass. Fluid cytology revealed chronic haemorrhage in 6/8 cases, and squamous epithelial cells in one case. Histopathology in all cases demonstrated an epithelium-lined cyst with no smooth muscle or thyroid tissue. Two cases was subjected to euthanasia; one due to concurrent laryngeal anomalies and one due to financial constraints. The remaining 5 cases were treated via surgical excision. Post operatively, right laryngeal hemiplegia was observed in 4/5 cases. All previous reports of BRC in the horse have described juvenile individuals. Brachial remnant cyst should be considered a differential diagnosis for mature horses with masses of the throatlatch area and can be definitively diagnosed by the presence of squamous epithelium in aspirated fluid or by histopathology of the excised mass. Right recurrent laryngeal nerve damage is a common complication of surgery. 2009 EVJ Ltd.

KW - Cervical cyst

KW - Congenital anomaly

KW - Horse

KW - Lymphoepithelial

KW - Neural crest

KW - Parotid

KW - Thyroglossal

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77951931920&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77951931920&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2746/042516409X452161

DO - 10.2746/042516409X452161

M3 - Article

C2 - 20383992

AN - SCOPUS:77951931920

VL - 41

SP - 918

EP - 923

JO - Equine veterinary journal. Supplement

JF - Equine veterinary journal. Supplement

SN - 2042-3306

IS - 9

ER -