The use of botulinum toxin has expanded in the last five years to include traditional neurological use against dystonia and spasticity, as well as the emerging use for headache, pain, neuropathy, myofascial pain, joint arthritis, otolaryngology, gastroenterology and genitourinary disorders. This review will focus on these emerging uses of botulinum toxin as reported in recent literature. The exploratory use of botulinum toxin for cervical dystonia, blepharospasm and spasticity in small trials and case reports, has led to its detailed study in larger placebo-controlled clinical trials. Although the use of botulinum toxin for new indications may benefit a specific subset of patients with refractory pain and disability, the reader must realize that this is an emerging area, generally limited by a lack of large, placebo-controlled studies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)