Bone marrow monocyte/macrophages are an early cellular target of pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) in rhesus macaques

C. P. Mandell, N. C. Jain, Chris J Miller, Satya Dandekar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic abnormalities are a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus infection in humans. However, the pathogenesis of these abnormalities remains unclear. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques is a well-recognized animal model for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Our previous studies have determined that in early SlY infection, rhesus macaques develop peripheral blood and bone marrow pathologic changes within the first 14 days after intravenous inoculation. Further investigations were initiated to determine the onset of bone marrow viral infection and the identity of in vivo viral cellular targets in bone marrow during the primary phase of infection in macaques infected with three different swains of SIVmac. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Rhesus macaques experimentally infected with pathogenic uncloned biologic SIVmac, molecularly cloned pathogenic SIVmac-239, or nonpathogenic SIVmac-1A11 were studied at 3, 7, and 14 days postinoculation. Bone marrow samples taken at necropsy were examined to identify early in vivo cellular targets of SIVmac in bone marrow and to correlate hematopathologic lesions with viral infection. In the first 2 weeks after intravenous inoculation, cellular targets of vital infection were identified by a combined in situ hybridization/immunohistochemical technique; changes in bone marrow monocyte/macrophage and CD3+ T lymphocyte populations were evaluated by immunohistochemical techniques. RESULTS: SIV- infected monocyte/macrophages were detected on days 3, 7, and 14 days postinoculation in bone marrow of all monkeys regardless of the viral isolate, whereas only a few SIV-infected CD3+ T lymphocytes were detected in 5 of 18 monkeys. The bone marrow morphologic changes associated with acute SIV infection included macrophage hyperplasia and apparent macrophage activation, diminution of bone marrow T lymphocytes, appearance of lymphoid aggregates, and myeloid and megakaryocytic hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that bone marrow monocyte/macrophages are an important early cellular target in SIV infection regardless of viral pathogenicity and in vitro cellular tropism. SIV-infected bone marrow monocyte/macrophages may play a key role in the pathogenesis of bone marrow lesions and further dissemination and persistence of virus infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)323-333
Number of pages11
JournalLaboratory Investigation
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1995


  • cell tropism
  • Hematology
  • in situ hybridization
  • myeloid hyperplasia
  • T lymphocytes
  • virus localization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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