Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls

Gayle C. Windham, Susan M. Pinney, Andreas Sjodin, Raymond Lum, Richard S. Jones, Larry L. Needham, Frank M. Biro, Robert A. Hiatt, Lawrence H. Kushi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

56 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and -118. Conclusions: Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-257
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume110
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers
Flame Retardants
Body Burden
PBDE
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
PCB
Pesticides
pesticide
Biomarkers
body mass
biomarker
Hispanic Americans
lipid
Codes (standards)
Body Mass Index
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene
Lipids
DDT
Geographic Locations
DDE

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • Children
  • PBDEs
  • PCBs
  • Pesticides
  • Puberty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls. / Windham, Gayle C.; Pinney, Susan M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Lum, Raymond; Jones, Richard S.; Needham, Larry L.; Biro, Frank M.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Kushi, Lawrence H.

In: Environmental Research, Vol. 110, No. 3, 04.2010, p. 251-257.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Windham, GC, Pinney, SM, Sjodin, A, Lum, R, Jones, RS, Needham, LL, Biro, FM, Hiatt, RA & Kushi, LH 2010, 'Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls', Environmental Research, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 251-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2010.01.004
Windham, Gayle C. ; Pinney, Susan M. ; Sjodin, Andreas ; Lum, Raymond ; Jones, Richard S. ; Needham, Larry L. ; Biro, Frank M. ; Hiatt, Robert A. ; Kushi, Lawrence H. / Body burdens of brominated flame retardants and other persistent organo-halogenated compounds and their descriptors in US girls. In: Environmental Research. 2010 ; Vol. 110, No. 3. pp. 251-257.
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AU - Pinney, Susan M.

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AU - Lum, Raymond

AU - Jones, Richard S.

AU - Needham, Larry L.

AU - Biro, Frank M.

AU - Hiatt, Robert A.

AU - Kushi, Lawrence H.

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N2 - Background: Levels of brominated flame retardants are increasing in US populations, yet little data are available on body burdens of these and other persistent hormonally active agents (HAAs) in school-aged children. Exposures to such chemicals may affect a number of health outcomes related to development and reproductive function. Objective: Determine the distribution of biomarkers of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organo-chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT/DDE, in children, and their variation by key descriptor variables. Methods: Ethnically diverse cohorts of girls 6-8 y old at baseline are being followed for growth and pubertal development in a multi-site, longitudinal study. Nearly 600 serum samples from the California and Ohio sites were analyzed for lipids, 35 PCB congeners, 11 PBDE congeners, and 9 OCPs. The biomarker distributions were examined and geometric means compared for selected analytes across categories of age, race, site, body mass index (BMI), parental education, maternal age at delivery, and breast feeding in adjusted models. Results: Six PBDE congeners were detected among greater than 70% of samples, with BDE-47 having the highest concentration (median 42.2, range 4.9-855 ng/g lipid). Girls in California had adjusted geometric mean (GM) PBDE levels significantly higher than girls in Ohio. Furthermore, Blacks had significantly higher adjusted GMs of all six PBDE congeners than Whites, and Hispanics had intermediate values. GMs tended to be lower among more obese girls, while other variables were not strongly associated. In contrast, GMs of the six PCB congeners most frequently detected were significantly lower among Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. PCBs and the three pesticides most frequently detected were also consistently lower among girls with high BMI, who were not breast-fed, whose mothers were younger, or whose care-givers (usually parents) were less educated. Girls in California had higher GMs than in Ohio for the pesticides and most PCB congeners, but the opposite for CB-99 and -118. Conclusions: Several of these potential HAAs were detected in nearly all of these young girls, some at relatively high levels, with variation by geographic location and other demographic factors that may reflect exposure pathways. The higher PBDE levels in California likely reflect differences in fire regulation and safety codes, with potential policy implications.

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