Blood Pressure Reference Intervals for Ketamine-sedated Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Rachel D. Brownlee, Philip H. Kass, Rebecca L. Sammak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Appropriate calculation and use of reference intervals have widespread clinical and research implications. Unfortunately, reference intervals for blood pressure in one of the most commonly used NHP species, rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), have never been calculated. Although anesthetic drugs and noninvasive methods of blood pressure measurement both have known effects on blood pressure values, their use provides the safest, fastest, and most widely used approach to clinical evaluation and blood pressure collection in this species. We analyzed noninvasive blood pressure measurements from 103 healthy, ketamine-sedated, adult (age, 8 to 16 y) rhesus macaques, representing both sexes, with various body condition scores by using 2 types of sphygmomanometers at 3 different anatomic locations. Reference intervals were calculated for each device, in each location, thus establishing normative data beneficial to clinical veterinarians assessing animal health and encouraging researchers to use noninvasive methods. Age, body condition score, sex, type of sphygmomanometer, and location of cuff placement were all found to influence blood pressure measurements significantly, providing important information necessary for the appropriate interpretation of noninvasive blood pressure values in rhesus macaques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-29
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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