Biosecurity Assessment and Seroprevalence of Respiratory Diseases in Backyard Poultry Flocks Located Close to and Far from Commercial Premises

T. Derksen, R. Lampron, R. Hauck, M. Pitesky, Rodrigo A Gallardo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies against avian influenza (AI), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). All visited flock owners answered a biosecurity questionnaire that assessed biosecurity measures. The questionnaire revealed that backyard poultry owners lack simple biosecurity measures such as use of dedicated shoes, their chicken sources are unreliable, and few of them benefit from veterinary oversight. Only one flock had a clear vaccination history against ND and IB. ORT, ND, IB, MS, MG, and ILT were the most seroprevalent in backyard poultry flocks with 97% (41/42), 77.5% (31/40), 75% (30/40), 73% (31/42), 69% (29/42), and 45% (19/42), respectively. The vaccinated flock was not considered in these calculations. When examining the distance between backyard flocks and the nearest commercial poultry facility, ND and MG were significantly more likely to be found in backyard flocks close to (<4 miles) whereas ORT was significantly more likely in backyard chickens located far from (>4 miles) commercial poultry. Birds purchased directly from National Poultry Improvement Plan hatcheries showed a reduced ND, MG, and MS antibody prevalence. Wearing dedicated shoes decreased MS antibody-positive birds. Finally, history of wild bird contact had a clear effect on an increased seroprevalence of NDV and MG. Serological results suggest that backyard poultry flocks have the potential to serve as a reservoir or amplifier for poultry respiratory diseases. The information generated in this project should direct extension efforts toward emphasizing the importance of small flock biosecurity and chick acquisition sources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalAvian Diseases
Volume62
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018

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Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Newcastle Disease
biosecurity
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Mycoplasma synoviae
Poultry
seroprevalence
respiratory tract diseases
flocks
poultry
Ornithobacterium
Bronchitis
Newcastle disease
Birds
Chickens
Shoes
infectious bronchitis
Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale
Antibodies
Poultry Diseases

Keywords

  • backyard flock
  • biosecurity
  • commercial flock
  • Respiratory diseases
  • seroprevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Animals
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

Cite this

Biosecurity Assessment and Seroprevalence of Respiratory Diseases in Backyard Poultry Flocks Located Close to and Far from Commercial Premises. / Derksen, T.; Lampron, R.; Hauck, R.; Pitesky, M.; Gallardo, Rodrigo A.

In: Avian Diseases, Vol. 62, No. 1, 01.03.2018, p. 1-5.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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