Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum

Xiaoyun Ye, Xiaoliu Zhou, Johnathan Furr, Ki Chang Ahn, Bruce D. Hammock, Earl L. Gray, Antonia M. Calafat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

3,4,4'-Trichlorocarbanilide (triclocarban, TCC) is widely used as an antimicrobial agent in a variety of consumer and personal care products. TCC is considered a potential endocrine disruptor, but its potential toxic effects in humans are still largely unknown. Because of its widespread uses, the potential for human exposure to TCC is high. In order to identify adequate exposure biomarkers of TCC, we investigated the metabolic profile of TCC in adult female Sprague Dawley rats after administering TCC once (500. mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. Urine was collected 0-24. h before dosing, and 0-24. h and 24-48. h after dosing. Serum was collected at necropsy 48. h after dosing. We identified several metabolites of TCC in urine and serum by on-line solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We unambiguously identified two major oxidative metabolites of TCC, 3'-hydroxy-TCC and 2'-hydroxy-TCC, by comparing their chromatographic behavior and mass spectral fragmentation patterns with those of authentic standards. By contrast, compared to these oxidative metabolites, we detected very low levels of TCC in the urine or serum. Taken together these data suggest that in rats, oxidation of TCC is a major metabolic pathway. We also measured TCC and its oxidative metabolites in 50 urine and 16 serum samples collected from adults in the United States. The results suggest differences in the metabolic profile of TCC in rats and in humans; oxidation appears to be a minor metabolic pathway in humans. Total (free plus conjugated) TCC could serve as a potential biomarker for human exposure to TCC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-74
Number of pages6
JournalToxicology
Volume286
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 15 2011

Fingerprint

Biomarkers
Urine
Serum
Metabolites
Rats
triclocarban
Metabolome
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Mass Behavior
Endocrine Disruptors
Oxidation
Poisons
Solid Phase Extraction
High performance liquid chromatography
Anti-Infective Agents

Keywords

  • 2'-OH-triclocarban
  • 3'-OH-triclocarban
  • Biomarkers
  • Exposure assessment
  • Oxidative metabolism
  • Triclocarban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Ye, X., Zhou, X., Furr, J., Ahn, K. C., Hammock, B. D., Gray, E. L., & Calafat, A. M. (2011). Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum. Toxicology, 286(1-3), 69-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2011.05.008

Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum. / Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Furr, Johnathan; Ahn, Ki Chang; Hammock, Bruce D.; Gray, Earl L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

In: Toxicology, Vol. 286, No. 1-3, 15.08.2011, p. 69-74.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ye, X, Zhou, X, Furr, J, Ahn, KC, Hammock, BD, Gray, EL & Calafat, AM 2011, 'Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum', Toxicology, vol. 286, no. 1-3, pp. 69-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2011.05.008
Ye X, Zhou X, Furr J, Ahn KC, Hammock BD, Gray EL et al. Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum. Toxicology. 2011 Aug 15;286(1-3):69-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2011.05.008
Ye, Xiaoyun ; Zhou, Xiaoliu ; Furr, Johnathan ; Ahn, Ki Chang ; Hammock, Bruce D. ; Gray, Earl L. ; Calafat, Antonia M. / Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum. In: Toxicology. 2011 ; Vol. 286, No. 1-3. pp. 69-74.
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