Biomarkers of exposure to triclocarban in urine and serum

Xiaoyun Ye, Xiaoliu Zhou, Johnathan Furr, Ki Chang Ahn, Bruce D. Hammock, Earl L. Gray, Antonia M. Calafat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


3,4,4'-Trichlorocarbanilide (triclocarban, TCC) is widely used as an antimicrobial agent in a variety of consumer and personal care products. TCC is considered a potential endocrine disruptor, but its potential toxic effects in humans are still largely unknown. Because of its widespread uses, the potential for human exposure to TCC is high. In order to identify adequate exposure biomarkers of TCC, we investigated the metabolic profile of TCC in adult female Sprague Dawley rats after administering TCC once (500. mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. Urine was collected 0-24. h before dosing, and 0-24. h and 24-48. h after dosing. Serum was collected at necropsy 48. h after dosing. We identified several metabolites of TCC in urine and serum by on-line solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We unambiguously identified two major oxidative metabolites of TCC, 3'-hydroxy-TCC and 2'-hydroxy-TCC, by comparing their chromatographic behavior and mass spectral fragmentation patterns with those of authentic standards. By contrast, compared to these oxidative metabolites, we detected very low levels of TCC in the urine or serum. Taken together these data suggest that in rats, oxidation of TCC is a major metabolic pathway. We also measured TCC and its oxidative metabolites in 50 urine and 16 serum samples collected from adults in the United States. The results suggest differences in the metabolic profile of TCC in rats and in humans; oxidation appears to be a minor metabolic pathway in humans. Total (free plus conjugated) TCC could serve as a potential biomarker for human exposure to TCC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-74
Number of pages6
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Aug 15 2011


  • 2'-OH-triclocarban
  • 3'-OH-triclocarban
  • Biomarkers
  • Exposure assessment
  • Oxidative metabolism
  • Triclocarban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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