Venous thromboembolism is known to be associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in patients with malignancy. Predictive laboratory biomarkers of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have long been sought after to improve outcomes and help guide clinical decision making. Previously studied biomarkers include C reactive protein (CRP), tissue factor expressing microparticles (TF MP), D-dimer, soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), factor VIII, platelet count, and leukocyte counts. This chapter will focus on these possible biomarkers for cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) with particular emphasis on the pathophysiology behind thrombosis formation as well as data from clinical studies in patients with malignancy. The incorporation of the above biomarkers into risk assessment tools to predict CAT will also be reviewed, as will risk factors for recurrent VTE in patients with malignancy. Further studies are ongoing to develop readily available biomarkers that can be incorporated into future risk assessment models with the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality due to cancer-associated thrombosis.