The antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) is frequently found in personal care products and commonly observed in surface waters and sediments. Due to its long environmental persistence TCC accumulates in sewage sludge. It also shows a high unintended biological activity as a potent inhibitor of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and may be an endocrine disruptor. In this study, we investigated bioconcentration, metabolism and elimination of TCC in fish using medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a model. Medaka larvae (7 ± 1 days post hatching) were exposed to 63 nM (20. μg/L) TCC water for 24 h. The LC-MS/MS analysis of water and tissues provided bioconcentration of TCC and its metabolites in fish body and rapid excretion into culture water. Results from tissue samples showed a tissue concentration of 34. μmol/kg and a log bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2.86. These results are slightly lower than previous findings in snails and algae. A significant portion of the absorbed TCC was oxidatively metabolized by the fish to hydroxylated products. These metabolites underwent extensive phase II metabolism to yield sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates. The most abundant metabolite in fish tissue was the glucuronide of 2'-OH-TCC. Elimination of TCC after transferring the fish to fresh water was rapid, with a half-life of 1 h. This study shows that larval medaka metabolize TCC similarly to mammals. The rapid rate of metabolism results in a lower bioconcentration than calculated from the octanol-water coefficient of TCC.
- Liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry
- Online-solid phase extraction
- Qurt medaka (Oryzias latipes)
- Triclocarban metabolites
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Aquatic Science
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis