There is a need to improve existing methods for early diagnosis of prostate cancer (CaP) and to identify men at risk for developing aggressive disease. In an effort to replace and/or supplement prostate-specific antigen many serum analytes have been examined, but with little supportive data for clinical use. Recently, technological advances in molecular assays have improved investigational outcomes and have led to the discovery of a number of prospective markers with high specificity. Further promise for providing more accurate CaP diagnosis and prognosis lies in proteomic array profiling and DNA methylation assays. This review illustrates the current benefits and limitations of potentially useful CaP serum markers that have considerable existing data and touches upon other future markers as well as the field of proteomics.
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