Beneficial effects of resistance exercise on glycemic control are not further improved by protein ingestion

Leigh Breen, Andrew Philp, Christopher S. Shaw, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Keith Baar, Kevin D. Tipton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the mechanisms underpinning modifications in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity 24 h after a bout of resistance exercise (RE) with or without protein ingestion. Methods: Twenty-four healthy males were assigned to a control (CON; n = 8), exercise (EX; n = 8) or exercise plus protein condition (EX+PRO; n = 8). Muscle biopsy and blood samples were obtained at rest for all groups and immediately post-RE (75% 1RM, 8×10 repetitions of leg-press and extension exercise) for EX and EX+PRO only. At 24 h post-RE (or post-resting biopsy for CON), a further muscle biopsy was obtained. Participants then consumed an oral glucose load (OGTT) containing 2 g of [U-13C] glucose during an infusion of 6, 6-[2H2] glucose. Blood samples were obtained every 10 min for 2 h to determine glucose kinetics. EX+PRO ingested an additional 25 g of intact whey protein with the OGTT. A final biopsy sample was obtained at the end of the OGTT. Results: Fasted plasma glucose and insulin were similar for all groups and were not different immediately post- and 24 h post-RE. Following RE, muscle glycogen was 26±8 and 19±6% lower in EX and EX+PRO, respectively. During OGTT, plasma glucose AUC was lower for EX and EX+PRO (75.1±2.7 and 75.3±2.8 mmol·L-1:120 min, respectively) compared with CON (90.6±4.1 mmol·L-1:120 min). Plasma insulin response was 13±2 and 21±4% lower for EX and CON, respectively, compared with EX+PRO. Glucose disappearance from the circulation was ~12% greater in EX and EX+PRO compared with CON. Basal 24 h post-RE and insulin-stimulated PAS-AS160/TBC1D4 phosphorylation was greater for EX and EX+PRO. Conclusions: Prior RE improves glycemic control and insulin sensitivity through an increase in the rate at which glucose is disposed from the circulation. However, co-ingesting protein during a high-glucose load does not augment this response at 24 h post-exercise in healthy, insulin-sensitive individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere20613
JournalPLoS One
Volume6
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011

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strength training
glycemic control
Eating
ingestion
Glucose
glucose
Biopsy
Insulin
Glucose Tolerance Test
Proteins
proteins
biopsy
exercise
insulin
Muscle
Insulin Resistance
Plasmas
insulin resistance
Muscles
muscles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Breen, L., Philp, A., Shaw, C. S., Jeukendrup, A. E., Baar, K., & Tipton, K. D. (2011). Beneficial effects of resistance exercise on glycemic control are not further improved by protein ingestion. PLoS One, 6(6), [e20613]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020613

Beneficial effects of resistance exercise on glycemic control are not further improved by protein ingestion. / Breen, Leigh; Philp, Andrew; Shaw, Christopher S.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Baar, Keith; Tipton, Kevin D.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 6, No. 6, e20613, 2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Breen, Leigh ; Philp, Andrew ; Shaw, Christopher S. ; Jeukendrup, Asker E. ; Baar, Keith ; Tipton, Kevin D. / Beneficial effects of resistance exercise on glycemic control are not further improved by protein ingestion. In: PLoS One. 2011 ; Vol. 6, No. 6.
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abstract = "Purpose: To investigate the mechanisms underpinning modifications in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity 24 h after a bout of resistance exercise (RE) with or without protein ingestion. Methods: Twenty-four healthy males were assigned to a control (CON; n = 8), exercise (EX; n = 8) or exercise plus protein condition (EX+PRO; n = 8). Muscle biopsy and blood samples were obtained at rest for all groups and immediately post-RE (75{\%} 1RM, 8×10 repetitions of leg-press and extension exercise) for EX and EX+PRO only. At 24 h post-RE (or post-resting biopsy for CON), a further muscle biopsy was obtained. Participants then consumed an oral glucose load (OGTT) containing 2 g of [U-13C] glucose during an infusion of 6, 6-[2H2] glucose. Blood samples were obtained every 10 min for 2 h to determine glucose kinetics. EX+PRO ingested an additional 25 g of intact whey protein with the OGTT. A final biopsy sample was obtained at the end of the OGTT. Results: Fasted plasma glucose and insulin were similar for all groups and were not different immediately post- and 24 h post-RE. Following RE, muscle glycogen was 26±8 and 19±6{\%} lower in EX and EX+PRO, respectively. During OGTT, plasma glucose AUC was lower for EX and EX+PRO (75.1±2.7 and 75.3±2.8 mmol·L-1:120 min, respectively) compared with CON (90.6±4.1 mmol·L-1:120 min). Plasma insulin response was 13±2 and 21±4{\%} lower for EX and CON, respectively, compared with EX+PRO. Glucose disappearance from the circulation was ~12{\%} greater in EX and EX+PRO compared with CON. Basal 24 h post-RE and insulin-stimulated PAS-AS160/TBC1D4 phosphorylation was greater for EX and EX+PRO. Conclusions: Prior RE improves glycemic control and insulin sensitivity through an increase in the rate at which glucose is disposed from the circulation. However, co-ingesting protein during a high-glucose load does not augment this response at 24 h post-exercise in healthy, insulin-sensitive individuals.",
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AU - Breen, Leigh

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AU - Tipton, Kevin D.

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