Host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are molecular signatures shared by different pathogens. Recognition of PAMPs by PRRs initiate innate immune responses via diverse signaling pathways. Over recent decades, advances in our knowledge of innate immune sensing have enhanced our understanding of the host immune response to poxviruses. Multiple PRR families have been implicated in poxvirus detection, mediating the initiation of signaling cascades, activation of transcription factors, and, ultimately, the expression of antiviral effectors. To counteract the host immune defense, poxviruses have evolved a variety of immunomodulators that have diverse strategies to disrupt or circumvent host antiviral responses triggered by PRRs. These interactions influence the outcomes of poxvirus infections. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the roles of PRRs in the recognition of poxviruses, their elicited antiviral effector functions, and how poxviral immunomodulators antagonize PRR-mediated host immune responses.
- Pattern recognition receptors
- RNase L
- Toll-like receptors
- Vaccinia virus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)