Avian analgesia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Avian analgesia is now recognized as a critical component of avian medicine and surgery. The need to recognize pain and to provide pain relief is the first step, and many anecdotal therapeutic doses have been extrapolated from other companion animals. Several published research investigations, using several species of birds, have begun to provide avian analgesia therapeutic information for clinical application. The challenge is to continue pushing this research forward with appreciation that there are approximately 10,000 known species of birds, perhaps 200 species commonly kept as pets, and that each species has a range of behaviors as varied as their species-specific PKs and PDs to each analgesic drug.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)61-80
Number of pages20
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011


  • Analgesia
  • Bird
  • Opioid
  • Pain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals


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