Avian analgesia.

Joanne R Paul-Murphy, J. W. Ludders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Understanding behavioral indicators of pain and other assessment techniques can help one to recognize pain in birds and prompt us to treat birds with analgesics. An analgesic plan needs to include several modalities to help reduce pain in the avian patient. Analgesic therapy should be directed at treating the disease/injury in the periphery, and the changes that occur in the central nervous system (CNS). Both opioid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapeutics can be selected to provide analgesia for the avian patient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)35-45, vi
JournalThe veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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