Understanding behavioral indicators of pain and other assessment techniques can help one to recognize pain in birds and prompt us to treat birds with analgesics. An analgesic plan needs to include several modalities to help reduce pain in the avian patient. Analgesic therapy should be directed at treating the disease/injury in the periphery, and the changes that occur in the central nervous system (CNS). Both opioid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapeutics can be selected to provide analgesia for the avian patient.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Pages (from-to)||35-45, vi|
|Journal||The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice|
|State||Published - Jan 2001|
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