There is an extensive spectrum of autoimmune entities that can involve the central nervous system, which has expanded with the emergence of new imaging modalities and several clinicopathologic entities. Clinical presentation is usually non-specific, and imaging has a critical role in the workup of these diseases. Immune-mediated diseases of the brain are not common in daily practice for radiologists and, except for a few of them such as multiple sclerosis, there is a vague understanding about differentiating them from each other based on the radiological findings. In this review, we aim to provide a practical diagnostic approach based on the unique radiological findings for each disease. We hope our diagnostic approach will help radiologists expand their basic understanding of the discussed disease entities and narrow the differential diagnosis in specific clinical scenarios. An understanding of unique imaging features of these disorders, along with laboratory evaluation, may enable clinicians to decrease the need for tissue biopsy.
- autoimmune brain disease
- Central nervous system
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology