Autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in boys with the fragile X premutation

Faraz Farzin, Hazel Perry, David R Hessl, Danuta Loesch, Jonathan Cohen, Susan Bacalman, Louise Gane, Flora Tassone, Paul J Hagerman, Randi J Hagerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

237 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a full mutation expansion (>200 CGG repeats) in the FMR1 gene that results in a deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation protein. Although most individuals with the premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) are considered unaffected by FXS, recent case studies have documented children with the premutation who have cognitive deficits, behavioral problems, and/or autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in boys with the premutation who presented as probands, in brothers with the premutation who did not present as probands, and in normal brothers of premutation and/or full mutation carriers. Participants included 43 male children: 14 probands who presented to clinic, 13 nonprobands who were identified through cascade testing (routine genetic testing of family members after identification of a proband) and confirmed to have the premutation, and a control group of 16 male siblings of individuals with the fragile X premutation or full mutation who were negative for the FMR1 mutation. Participants came from 1 of 2 collaborative sites: University of California, Davis and La Trobe University in Australia. Parents completed the Conners' Global Index-Parent Version for assessing symptoms of ADHD and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) for identifying symptoms of ASD. Children who were in the ASD range on the SCQ (n = 13) underwent further evaluation with either the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (n = 10) or the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (n = 3). A final diagnosis of ASD included clinical assessment utilizing DSM-IV-TR criteria in addition to the standardized assessments. There was a higher rate of ASD in boys with the premutation presenting as probands (p < 0.001) or nonprobands (p < .04) compared with sibling controls without the premutation. In addition, probands had a significant increase in ADHD symptoms compared with controls (p < .0001). Of the probands, 93% had symptoms of ADHD and 79% had ASD. In the nonproband premutation group, 38% had symptoms of ADHD and 8% had ASD. Thirteen percent of sibling controls had symptoms of ADHD and none had ASD. IQ scores were similar in all 3 groups (p = .13), but the use of psychotropic medications was significantly higher in probands with the premutation compared with that in controls (p < .0001). Developmental problems have been observed in premutation carriers, particularly those who present clinically with behavioral difficulties. Although this study is based on a small sample size, it suggests that premutation carriers, even those who do not present clinically, may be at increased risk for an ASD and/or symptoms of ADHD. If the premutation is identified through cascade testing, then further assessment should be carried out for symptoms of ADHD, social deficits, or learning disabilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Volume27
Issue number2 SUPPL. 2
StatePublished - Apr 2006

Fingerprint

Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Siblings
Fragile X Syndrome
Mutation
Autistic Disorder
Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein
Communication
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Learning Disorders
Genetic Testing
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Sample Size
Appointments and Schedules
Parents
Observation
Interviews
Control Groups

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Autism
  • FMR1
  • FMRP
  • FXTAS
  • RNA toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Psychology(all)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

Autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in boys with the fragile X premutation. / Farzin, Faraz; Perry, Hazel; Hessl, David R; Loesch, Danuta; Cohen, Jonathan; Bacalman, Susan; Gane, Louise; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi J.

In: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Vol. 27, No. 2 SUPPL. 2, 04.2006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{5ea3b993dae748178676142ec14b4d93,
title = "Autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in boys with the fragile X premutation",
abstract = "Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a full mutation expansion (>200 CGG repeats) in the FMR1 gene that results in a deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation protein. Although most individuals with the premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) are considered unaffected by FXS, recent case studies have documented children with the premutation who have cognitive deficits, behavioral problems, and/or autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in boys with the premutation who presented as probands, in brothers with the premutation who did not present as probands, and in normal brothers of premutation and/or full mutation carriers. Participants included 43 male children: 14 probands who presented to clinic, 13 nonprobands who were identified through cascade testing (routine genetic testing of family members after identification of a proband) and confirmed to have the premutation, and a control group of 16 male siblings of individuals with the fragile X premutation or full mutation who were negative for the FMR1 mutation. Participants came from 1 of 2 collaborative sites: University of California, Davis and La Trobe University in Australia. Parents completed the Conners' Global Index-Parent Version for assessing symptoms of ADHD and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) for identifying symptoms of ASD. Children who were in the ASD range on the SCQ (n = 13) underwent further evaluation with either the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (n = 10) or the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (n = 3). A final diagnosis of ASD included clinical assessment utilizing DSM-IV-TR criteria in addition to the standardized assessments. There was a higher rate of ASD in boys with the premutation presenting as probands (p < 0.001) or nonprobands (p < .04) compared with sibling controls without the premutation. In addition, probands had a significant increase in ADHD symptoms compared with controls (p < .0001). Of the probands, 93{\%} had symptoms of ADHD and 79{\%} had ASD. In the nonproband premutation group, 38{\%} had symptoms of ADHD and 8{\%} had ASD. Thirteen percent of sibling controls had symptoms of ADHD and none had ASD. IQ scores were similar in all 3 groups (p = .13), but the use of psychotropic medications was significantly higher in probands with the premutation compared with that in controls (p < .0001). Developmental problems have been observed in premutation carriers, particularly those who present clinically with behavioral difficulties. Although this study is based on a small sample size, it suggests that premutation carriers, even those who do not present clinically, may be at increased risk for an ASD and/or symptoms of ADHD. If the premutation is identified through cascade testing, then further assessment should be carried out for symptoms of ADHD, social deficits, or learning disabilities.",
keywords = "ADHD, Autism, FMR1, FMRP, FXTAS, RNA toxicity",
author = "Faraz Farzin and Hazel Perry and Hessl, {David R} and Danuta Loesch and Jonathan Cohen and Susan Bacalman and Louise Gane and Flora Tassone and Hagerman, {Paul J} and Hagerman, {Randi J}",
year = "2006",
month = "4",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
journal = "Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics",
issn = "0196-206X",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "2 SUPPL. 2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in boys with the fragile X premutation

AU - Farzin, Faraz

AU - Perry, Hazel

AU - Hessl, David R

AU - Loesch, Danuta

AU - Cohen, Jonathan

AU - Bacalman, Susan

AU - Gane, Louise

AU - Tassone, Flora

AU - Hagerman, Paul J

AU - Hagerman, Randi J

PY - 2006/4

Y1 - 2006/4

N2 - Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a full mutation expansion (>200 CGG repeats) in the FMR1 gene that results in a deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation protein. Although most individuals with the premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) are considered unaffected by FXS, recent case studies have documented children with the premutation who have cognitive deficits, behavioral problems, and/or autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in boys with the premutation who presented as probands, in brothers with the premutation who did not present as probands, and in normal brothers of premutation and/or full mutation carriers. Participants included 43 male children: 14 probands who presented to clinic, 13 nonprobands who were identified through cascade testing (routine genetic testing of family members after identification of a proband) and confirmed to have the premutation, and a control group of 16 male siblings of individuals with the fragile X premutation or full mutation who were negative for the FMR1 mutation. Participants came from 1 of 2 collaborative sites: University of California, Davis and La Trobe University in Australia. Parents completed the Conners' Global Index-Parent Version for assessing symptoms of ADHD and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) for identifying symptoms of ASD. Children who were in the ASD range on the SCQ (n = 13) underwent further evaluation with either the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (n = 10) or the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (n = 3). A final diagnosis of ASD included clinical assessment utilizing DSM-IV-TR criteria in addition to the standardized assessments. There was a higher rate of ASD in boys with the premutation presenting as probands (p < 0.001) or nonprobands (p < .04) compared with sibling controls without the premutation. In addition, probands had a significant increase in ADHD symptoms compared with controls (p < .0001). Of the probands, 93% had symptoms of ADHD and 79% had ASD. In the nonproband premutation group, 38% had symptoms of ADHD and 8% had ASD. Thirteen percent of sibling controls had symptoms of ADHD and none had ASD. IQ scores were similar in all 3 groups (p = .13), but the use of psychotropic medications was significantly higher in probands with the premutation compared with that in controls (p < .0001). Developmental problems have been observed in premutation carriers, particularly those who present clinically with behavioral difficulties. Although this study is based on a small sample size, it suggests that premutation carriers, even those who do not present clinically, may be at increased risk for an ASD and/or symptoms of ADHD. If the premutation is identified through cascade testing, then further assessment should be carried out for symptoms of ADHD, social deficits, or learning disabilities.

AB - Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a full mutation expansion (>200 CGG repeats) in the FMR1 gene that results in a deficiency of the fragile X mental retardation protein. Although most individuals with the premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) are considered unaffected by FXS, recent case studies have documented children with the premutation who have cognitive deficits, behavioral problems, and/or autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in boys with the premutation who presented as probands, in brothers with the premutation who did not present as probands, and in normal brothers of premutation and/or full mutation carriers. Participants included 43 male children: 14 probands who presented to clinic, 13 nonprobands who were identified through cascade testing (routine genetic testing of family members after identification of a proband) and confirmed to have the premutation, and a control group of 16 male siblings of individuals with the fragile X premutation or full mutation who were negative for the FMR1 mutation. Participants came from 1 of 2 collaborative sites: University of California, Davis and La Trobe University in Australia. Parents completed the Conners' Global Index-Parent Version for assessing symptoms of ADHD and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) for identifying symptoms of ASD. Children who were in the ASD range on the SCQ (n = 13) underwent further evaluation with either the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (n = 10) or the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (n = 3). A final diagnosis of ASD included clinical assessment utilizing DSM-IV-TR criteria in addition to the standardized assessments. There was a higher rate of ASD in boys with the premutation presenting as probands (p < 0.001) or nonprobands (p < .04) compared with sibling controls without the premutation. In addition, probands had a significant increase in ADHD symptoms compared with controls (p < .0001). Of the probands, 93% had symptoms of ADHD and 79% had ASD. In the nonproband premutation group, 38% had symptoms of ADHD and 8% had ASD. Thirteen percent of sibling controls had symptoms of ADHD and none had ASD. IQ scores were similar in all 3 groups (p = .13), but the use of psychotropic medications was significantly higher in probands with the premutation compared with that in controls (p < .0001). Developmental problems have been observed in premutation carriers, particularly those who present clinically with behavioral difficulties. Although this study is based on a small sample size, it suggests that premutation carriers, even those who do not present clinically, may be at increased risk for an ASD and/or symptoms of ADHD. If the premutation is identified through cascade testing, then further assessment should be carried out for symptoms of ADHD, social deficits, or learning disabilities.

KW - ADHD

KW - Autism

KW - FMR1

KW - FMRP

KW - FXTAS

KW - RNA toxicity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33750283784&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33750283784&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 16685180

AN - SCOPUS:33750283784

VL - 27

JO - Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

JF - Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

SN - 0196-206X

IS - 2 SUPPL. 2

ER -