Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent, highly heritable, and impairing disorder characterized by cross-situationally displayed, developmentally inappropriate levels of inattentive-disorganized and/or hyperactive-impulsive behavior. Etiologically, interactions among biological and environmental factors are implicated. Although preliminary efforts are underway to identify preschool-aged manifestations of ADHD, early diagnosis is made difficult by developmentally typical high levels of ADHD symptoms at young ages. Instead, children are often identified as they enter formal schooling. Evaluation for ADHD should include direct observation, informant ratings, interviews with caregivers, and assessment for comorbidities. Prevention strategies are currently limited; stimulant medication and behavioral strategies are the most effective interventions.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Encyclopedia of Mental Health|
|Subtitle of host publication||Second Edition|
|Number of pages||8|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2015|
ASJC Scopus subject areas