Introduction: Weight loss reduces co-morbidities of obesity, but decreases bone mass. Purpose: Our aims were to 1) determine if adequate dairy intake attenuates weight loss-induced bone loss; 2) evaluate the associations of endocrine, inflammatory and bone markers, anthropometric and other parameters to bone mineral density and content (BMD, BMC) pre- and post-weight loss; and 3) model the contribution of these variables to post weight-loss BMD and BMC. Methods: Overweight/obese women (BMI: 28-37kg/m2) were enrolled in an energy reduced (-500kcal/d; -2092kJ/d) diet with adequate dairy (AD: 3-4servings/d; n=25, 32.2±8.8years) or low dairy (LD: ≤1serving/d; n=26, 31.7±8.4years). BMD, BMC and body composition were measured by DXA. Bone markers (CTX, PYD, BAP, OC), endocrine (PTH, vitamin D, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, amylin, insulin, GLP-1, PAI-1, HOMA) and inflammatory markers (CRP, IL1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, cortisol) were measured in serum or plasma. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Results: Following weight loss, AD intake resulted in significantly greater (p. = 0.004) lumbar spine BMD and serum osteocalcin (p. = 0.004) concentration compared to LD. Pre- and post-body fat was negatively associated with hip and lumbar spine BMC (r. = -. 0.28, p. = 0.04 to -. 0.45, p. = 0.001). Of note were the significant negative associations among bone markers and IL-1β, TNFα and CRP ranging from r. = -. 0.29 (p. = 0.04) to r. = -. 0.34 (p. = 0.01); magnitude of associations did not change with weight loss. Adiponectin was negatively related to change in osteocalcin. Factor analysis resulted in 8 pre- and post-weight loss factors. Pre-weight loss factors accounted for 13.7% of the total variance in pre-weight loss hip BMD; post-weight loss factors explained 19.6% of the total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD. None of the factors contributed to the variance in lumbar spine BMD. Conclusion: AD during weight loss resulted in higher lumbar spine BMD and osteocalcin compared to LD. Significant negative associations were observed between bone and inflammatory markers suggesting that inflammation suppresses bone metabolism. Using factor analysis, 19.6% of total variance in post-weight loss hip BMD could be explained by endocrine, immune, and anthropometric variables, but not lumbar spine BMD.
- Body composition
- Endocrine and inflammatory markers
- Physical activity
- Weight loss induced bone loss
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism