BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Frailty is common among patients on dialysis and increases vulnerability to dependency and death.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We examined the predictive ability of frailty on the basis of physical performance and self-reported function in participants of a US Renal Data System special study that enrolled a convenience sample of 771 prevalent patients on hemodialysis from 14 facilities in the Atlanta and northern California areas from 2009 to 2011. Performance-based frailty was assessed using direct measures of grip strength (weakness) and gait speed along with weight loss, exhaustion, and low physical activity; poor self-reported function was substituted for weakness and slow gait speed in the self-reported function-based definition. For both definitions, patients meeting three or more criteria were considered frail.
RESULTS: The mean age of 762 patients included in analyses was 57.1±14.2 years old; 240 patients (31%) met the physical performance-based definition of frailty, and 396 (52%) met the self-reported function-based definition. There were 106 deaths during 1.7 (interquartile range, 1.4-2.4) years of follow-up. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality for the performance-based definition (2.16; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.41 to 3.29) was slightly higher than that of the self-reported function-based definition (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.00). Patients who met the self-report-based definition but not the physical performance definition of frailty (n=192) were not at statistically significantly higher risk of mortality than those who were not frail by either definition (n=330; HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.81 to 2.45), but those who met both definitions of frailty (n=204) were at significantly higher risk (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.51 to 4.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Frailty, defined using either direct tests of physical performance or self-reported physical function, was associated with higher mortality among patients receiving hemodialysis. Future studies are needed to determine the utility of assessing frailty in clinical practice.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN|
|State||Published - Apr 7 2016|
- follow-up studies
- geriatric nephrology
- hand strength
- health status indicators
- physical fitness
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine