Association of a Workplace Sales Ban on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages with Employee Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Health

Elissa S. Epel, Alison Hartman, Laurie M. Jacobs, Cindy Leung, Michael A. Cohn, Leeane Jensen, Laura Ishkanian, Janet Wojcicki, Ashley E. Mason, Robert H. Lustig, Kimber L. Stanhope, Laura A. Schmidt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Importance: Reductions in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake can improve health, but are difficult for individuals to achieve on their own. Objectives: To evaluate whether a workplace SSB sales ban was associated with SSB intake and cardiometabolic health among employees and whether a brief motivational intervention provides added benefits to the sales ban. Design, Setting, and Participants: This before-after study and additional randomized trial conducted from July 28, 2015, to October 16, 2016, at a Northern California university and hospital assessed SSB intake, anthropometrics, and cardiometabolic biomarkers among 214 full-time English-speaking employees who were frequent SSB consumers (≥360 mL [≥12 fl oz] per day) before and 10 months after implementation of an SSB sales ban in a large workplace, with half the employees randomized to receive a brief motivational intervention targeting SSB reduction. Interventions: The employer stopped selling SSBs in all workplace venues, and half the sample was randomized to receive a brief motivational intervention and the other half was a control group that did not receive the intervention. This intervention was modeled on standard brief motivational interventions for alcohol used in the workplace that promote health knowledge and goal setting. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes included changes in SSB intake, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and measures of abdominal adiposity. The primary associations tested were the correlation between changes in SSB intake and changes in HOMA-IR. Results: Among the 214 study participants, 124 (57.9%) were women, with a mean (SD) age of 41.2 (11.0) years and a baseline mean (SD) body mass index of 29.4 (6.5). They reported a mean daily intake of 1050 mL (35 fl oz) of SSBs at baseline and 540 mL (18 fl oz) at follow-up - a 510-mL (17-fl oz) (48.6%) decrease (P <.001). Reductions in SSB intake correlated with improvements in HOMA-IR (r = 0.16; P =.03). Those not randomized to receive the brief intervention reduced their SSB intake by a mean (SD) of 246.0 (84.0) mL (8.2 [2.8] fl oz), while those also receiving the brief intervention reduced SSB intake by 762.0 (84.0) mL (25.4 [2.8] fl oz). From baseline to follow-up, there were significant reductions in mean (SE) waist circumference (2.1 [2.8] cm; P <.001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that the workplace sales ban was associated with a reduction in SSB intake and a significant reduction in waist circumference among employees within 10 months. The randomized clinical trial portion of this study found that targeting those at high risk with a brief motivational intervention led to additional improvements. Workplace sales bans may offer a promising new private-sector strategy for reducing the health harms of SSB intake. Trial Registration: identifier: NCT02585336.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9-16
Number of pages8
JournalJAMA Internal Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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