Assessment of acute injuries, exposure to environmental toxins, and five-year health surveillance of New York Police Department working dogs following the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center terrorist attack

Philip R. Fox, Birgit Puschner, Joseph G. Ebel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective - To determine deployment logistics of New York Police Department (NYPD) working dogs that assisted in relief efforts at the World Trade Center (WTC) site following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack; establish types and rates of related acute injuries and illnesses; identify environmental toxin exposures; and determine long-term (ie, 5-year) health effects of deployment. Design - Prospective cohort study. Animals - 27 working dogs. Procedures - Deployment logistics for the period from September 11, 2001, through May 30, 2002, were determined, and acute health disorders were identified by means of physical examination; a questionnaire; interviews with dog handlers; and toxicologic (blood and hair samples), clinicopathologic, microbiologic (nasal swab specimens submitted for Bacillus anthracis culture), and radiographic methods. Long-term health surveillance ended September 21, 2006. Results - Dogs worked a total of 1,428 days (15,148 hours) at the site. Seventeen of the 27 (62.9%) dogs had health disorders during the first week. Specific conditions included fatigue (incidence rate [events/1,000 active deployment hours], 13.1), conjunctival irritation (13.1), respiratory tract problems (12.4), decreased appetite (10.8), dehydration (10), and cuts (9.3). Only minor hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities were identified. Bacterial culture of nasal swab specimens did not yield B anthracis. Only mild and infrequent health conditions were identified during the 5-year follow-up period. None of the dogs were identified as having chronic respiratory tract disease. Six dogs died of various causes. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Results suggested that acute injuries and illnesses were common among NYPD working dogs deployed to the WTC disaster site, but that long-term health complications were minimal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)48-59
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume233
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2008

Fingerprint

September 11 Terrorist Attacks
police
Environmental Exposure
international trade
Police
toxins
Dogs
monitoring
dogs
Health
Wounds and Injuries
Nose
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Bacillus anthracis
dehydration (animal physiology)
disasters
Disasters
Appetite
appetite
blood serum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

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title = "Assessment of acute injuries, exposure to environmental toxins, and five-year health surveillance of New York Police Department working dogs following the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center terrorist attack",
abstract = "Objective - To determine deployment logistics of New York Police Department (NYPD) working dogs that assisted in relief efforts at the World Trade Center (WTC) site following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack; establish types and rates of related acute injuries and illnesses; identify environmental toxin exposures; and determine long-term (ie, 5-year) health effects of deployment. Design - Prospective cohort study. Animals - 27 working dogs. Procedures - Deployment logistics for the period from September 11, 2001, through May 30, 2002, were determined, and acute health disorders were identified by means of physical examination; a questionnaire; interviews with dog handlers; and toxicologic (blood and hair samples), clinicopathologic, microbiologic (nasal swab specimens submitted for Bacillus anthracis culture), and radiographic methods. Long-term health surveillance ended September 21, 2006. Results - Dogs worked a total of 1,428 days (15,148 hours) at the site. Seventeen of the 27 (62.9{\%}) dogs had health disorders during the first week. Specific conditions included fatigue (incidence rate [events/1,000 active deployment hours], 13.1), conjunctival irritation (13.1), respiratory tract problems (12.4), decreased appetite (10.8), dehydration (10), and cuts (9.3). Only minor hematologic and serum biochemical abnormalities were identified. Bacterial culture of nasal swab specimens did not yield B anthracis. Only mild and infrequent health conditions were identified during the 5-year follow-up period. None of the dogs were identified as having chronic respiratory tract disease. Six dogs died of various causes. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Results suggested that acute injuries and illnesses were common among NYPD working dogs deployed to the WTC disaster site, but that long-term health complications were minimal.",
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