Purpose: Traditionally, diagnosis and treatment plans for Peyronie's disease have been based on history and physical examination. Penile ultrasound provides rapid, anatomical information to establish disease severity, and to monitor progression and response to medical therapy. We determined the relationship between ultrasound characteristics and progression to surgical intervention in men with Peyronie's disease. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 518 patients with Peyronie's disease. Patients completed a Peyronie's disease specific questionnaire detailing medical history, health related behaviors and Peyronie's disease characteristics, and underwent sonographic evaluation of the penis. Measurements of subtunical calcifications, septal fibrosis, tunical thickening (tunica thickness greater than 2 mm) and intracavernous fibrosis were made. Progression to surgery was determined from the medical record. Results: In this cohort (mean patient age 53.8 years, range 20 to 78) 31% of patients had calcifications, 50% had tunical thickening, 20% had septal fibrosis and 15% had intracavernous fibrosis. Overall 25% of the cohort progressed to surgical intervention after an average followup of 1.25 years (range 0 to 7.6). Patients who underwent surgery were more likely to have subtunical calcifications present at the first clinic visit (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.16-2.62). No other sonographic characteristics were associated with progression to surgery. After adjustment for age, marital status, degree of curvature, additional penile deformity, difficulty with penetration, ability to have intercourse and prior treatment for Peyronie's disease, calcifications were strongly associated with progression to surgery (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.25-3.45). Conclusions: In a large cohort of patients with Peyronie's disease the presence of sonographically detected sub-tunical calcifications during the initial office evaluation was independently associated with subsequent surgical intervention.
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