Aquatic Francisella-like bacterium associated with mortality of intensively cultured hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis

V. E. Ostland, J. A. Stannard, J. J. Creek, Ronald Hedrick, H. W. Ferguson, J. M. Carlberg, M. E. Westerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The present study identifies an emerging disease associated with an aquatic Francisella-like bacterium that can cause mortality in hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis reared intensively in freshwater. Clinically affected fish were lethargic, had scattered haemorrhagic cutaneous lesions and diffuse gill pallor. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen and contained numerous interstitial granulomas; histological examination revealed small, pleomorphic Gram-negative coccobacilli within vacuolated cells. The bacterium could not be cultured from head kidney homogenates either with standard or enriched microbiological media or following inoculation of a Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE)-214 cell line. No amplification product was obtained from head kidney DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using Piscinckettsia salmonis-specific primers. PCR analysis of infected head kidney homogenate with primers designed for the eubacterial 16S rRNA produced a single amplicon. Phylogenetic analysis of this DNA sequence demonstrated that the sequence aligned most closely with members of the genus Francisella, identified from tilapia Oreochromis spp. in Taiwan and an aquatic Francisella species that was recently isolated from the three-line grunt Parapristipoma trilineatum in Japan. This Francisella-like disease was transmitted to naïve hybrid striped bass fingerlings by intraperitoneal injection of tissue homogenates prepared from a natural outbreak. All fish developed gross and histological lesions identical to those from natural outbreaks. Intracellular Gram-negative bacteria were observed within the cytoplasm of cells (presumably macrophages) within the granulomas, but bacteria were not recovered. The 16S DNA sequence of the bacterium obtained from tissues of experimentally infected fish was identical to that obtained from the fish used as infected donor tissue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-145
Number of pages11
JournalDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
Volume72
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 17 2006

Fingerprint

Francisella
Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis
Morone saxatilis
kidneys
mortality
bacterium
bacteria
granuloma
fish
DNA
lesion
polymerase chain reaction
Oreochromis
nucleotide sequences
Haemulidae
emerging diseases
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
tilapia (common name)
skin lesions
fingerlings

Keywords

  • Emergent disease in aquaculture
  • Francisella-like bacterium
  • Hybrid striped bass
  • Intracellular bacterial disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

Aquatic Francisella-like bacterium associated with mortality of intensively cultured hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis. / Ostland, V. E.; Stannard, J. A.; Creek, J. J.; Hedrick, Ronald; Ferguson, H. W.; Carlberg, J. M.; Westerman, M. E.

In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, Vol. 72, No. 2, 17.10.2006, p. 135-145.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ostland, V. E. ; Stannard, J. A. ; Creek, J. J. ; Hedrick, Ronald ; Ferguson, H. W. ; Carlberg, J. M. ; Westerman, M. E. / Aquatic Francisella-like bacterium associated with mortality of intensively cultured hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis. In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 2006 ; Vol. 72, No. 2. pp. 135-145.
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AB - The present study identifies an emerging disease associated with an aquatic Francisella-like bacterium that can cause mortality in hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis reared intensively in freshwater. Clinically affected fish were lethargic, had scattered haemorrhagic cutaneous lesions and diffuse gill pallor. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen and contained numerous interstitial granulomas; histological examination revealed small, pleomorphic Gram-negative coccobacilli within vacuolated cells. The bacterium could not be cultured from head kidney homogenates either with standard or enriched microbiological media or following inoculation of a Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE)-214 cell line. No amplification product was obtained from head kidney DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using Piscinckettsia salmonis-specific primers. PCR analysis of infected head kidney homogenate with primers designed for the eubacterial 16S rRNA produced a single amplicon. Phylogenetic analysis of this DNA sequence demonstrated that the sequence aligned most closely with members of the genus Francisella, identified from tilapia Oreochromis spp. in Taiwan and an aquatic Francisella species that was recently isolated from the three-line grunt Parapristipoma trilineatum in Japan. This Francisella-like disease was transmitted to naïve hybrid striped bass fingerlings by intraperitoneal injection of tissue homogenates prepared from a natural outbreak. All fish developed gross and histological lesions identical to those from natural outbreaks. Intracellular Gram-negative bacteria were observed within the cytoplasm of cells (presumably macrophages) within the granulomas, but bacteria were not recovered. The 16S DNA sequence of the bacterium obtained from tissues of experimentally infected fish was identical to that obtained from the fish used as infected donor tissue.

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