Application of europium(III) chelate-dyed nanoparticle labels in a competitive atrazine fluoroimmunoassay on an ITO waveguide

C. M. Cummins, M. E. Koivunen, A. Stephanian, S. J. Gee, B. D. Hammock, I. M. Kennedy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


We have demonstrated the use of an optical indium tin oxide (ITO) (quartz) waveguide as a new platform for immunosensors with fluorescent europium(III) chelate nanoparticle labels (Seradyn) in a competitive atrazine immunoassay. ITO as a solid surface facilitated the successful use of particulate labels in a competitive assay format. The limit of detection in the new nanoparticle assay was similar to a conventional ELISA. The effect of particle size on bioconjugate binding kinetics was studied using three sizes of bioconjugated particle labels (107, 304, and 396 nm) and a rabbit IgG/anti-IgG system in a 96-well plate. A decrease in particle size resulted in faster binding but did not increase the assay sensitivity. Flux calculations based on the particle diffusivity prove that faster binding of the small particles in this study was primarily due to diffusion kinetics and not necessarily to a higher density of antibodies on the particle surface. The results suggest that ITO could make a good platform for an optical immunosensor using fluorescent nanoparticle labels in a competitive assay format for small molecule detection. However, when used in combination with fluorescent particulate labels, a highly sensitive excitation/detection system needs to be developed to fully utilize the kinetic advantage from small particle size. Different regeneration methods tested in this study showed that repeated washings with 0.1 M glycine-HCl facilitated the reuse of the ITO waveguide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1077-1085
Number of pages9
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jan 15 2006


  • Atrazine
  • Fluorescence
  • Immunoassay
  • ITO
  • Lanthanide
  • Nanoparticles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Electrochemistry


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