Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of paraquat in human-exposure samples

M. E. Koivunen, S. J. Gee, E. K. Park, K. Lee, Marc B Schenker, B. D. Hammock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Paraquat is a toxic quaternary ammonium compound used as an herbicide around the world. Easy, fast, and inexpensive but sensitive methods are needed to study the effects of long-term, low-level exposure of paraquat on human health. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for quantification of paraquat in urine and air-filter samples collected in a human-exposure study among farm workers in Costa Rica. A sample pretreatment consisted of removal of interfering substances using solid-phase extraction resin columns. The precision and accuracy of the method were tested using duplicate spiked urine samples. The correlation between results for blind samples obtained using ELISA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was significant (R 2∈=∈0.945 and 0.906 for spiked and field samples, respectively). With an LOQ of 2 ng mL-1, this ELISA method was able to distinguish the exposed from the nonexposed farm workers. For the air-filter analysis, paraquat was extracted by 9M H2SO4 at 60°C for 12 hours, and the results obtained by ELISA showed good correlation (R 2∈=∈0.918) with the spectrophotometric (256 nm) measurements. Paraquat in acid-stabilized urine samples was very stable, and no significant losses were detected during a 3-month storage at room temperature, at 4°C, or at -20°C.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)184-190
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Volume48
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2005

Fingerprint

paraquat
Immunosorbents
Paraquat
Assays
Enzymes
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
assay
enzyme
Air filters
Air Filters
urine
agricultural worker
Farms
Urine
Ammonium compounds
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Herbicides
ammonium compound
Liquid chromatography
filter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Toxicology

Cite this

Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of paraquat in human-exposure samples. / Koivunen, M. E.; Gee, S. J.; Park, E. K.; Lee, K.; Schenker, Marc B; Hammock, B. D.

In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 48, No. 2, 02.2005, p. 184-190.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{c229951d8fe345c19c118e8f8c51f483,
title = "Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of paraquat in human-exposure samples",
abstract = "Paraquat is a toxic quaternary ammonium compound used as an herbicide around the world. Easy, fast, and inexpensive but sensitive methods are needed to study the effects of long-term, low-level exposure of paraquat on human health. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for quantification of paraquat in urine and air-filter samples collected in a human-exposure study among farm workers in Costa Rica. A sample pretreatment consisted of removal of interfering substances using solid-phase extraction resin columns. The precision and accuracy of the method were tested using duplicate spiked urine samples. The correlation between results for blind samples obtained using ELISA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was significant (R 2∈=∈0.945 and 0.906 for spiked and field samples, respectively). With an LOQ of 2 ng mL-1, this ELISA method was able to distinguish the exposed from the nonexposed farm workers. For the air-filter analysis, paraquat was extracted by 9M H2SO4 at 60°C for 12 hours, and the results obtained by ELISA showed good correlation (R 2∈=∈0.918) with the spectrophotometric (256 nm) measurements. Paraquat in acid-stabilized urine samples was very stable, and no significant losses were detected during a 3-month storage at room temperature, at 4°C, or at -20°C.",
author = "Koivunen, {M. E.} and Gee, {S. J.} and Park, {E. K.} and K. Lee and Schenker, {Marc B} and Hammock, {B. D.}",
year = "2005",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1007/s00244-003-0251-x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "48",
pages = "184--190",
journal = "Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology",
issn = "0090-4341",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of paraquat in human-exposure samples

AU - Koivunen, M. E.

AU - Gee, S. J.

AU - Park, E. K.

AU - Lee, K.

AU - Schenker, Marc B

AU - Hammock, B. D.

PY - 2005/2

Y1 - 2005/2

N2 - Paraquat is a toxic quaternary ammonium compound used as an herbicide around the world. Easy, fast, and inexpensive but sensitive methods are needed to study the effects of long-term, low-level exposure of paraquat on human health. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for quantification of paraquat in urine and air-filter samples collected in a human-exposure study among farm workers in Costa Rica. A sample pretreatment consisted of removal of interfering substances using solid-phase extraction resin columns. The precision and accuracy of the method were tested using duplicate spiked urine samples. The correlation between results for blind samples obtained using ELISA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was significant (R 2∈=∈0.945 and 0.906 for spiked and field samples, respectively). With an LOQ of 2 ng mL-1, this ELISA method was able to distinguish the exposed from the nonexposed farm workers. For the air-filter analysis, paraquat was extracted by 9M H2SO4 at 60°C for 12 hours, and the results obtained by ELISA showed good correlation (R 2∈=∈0.918) with the spectrophotometric (256 nm) measurements. Paraquat in acid-stabilized urine samples was very stable, and no significant losses were detected during a 3-month storage at room temperature, at 4°C, or at -20°C.

AB - Paraquat is a toxic quaternary ammonium compound used as an herbicide around the world. Easy, fast, and inexpensive but sensitive methods are needed to study the effects of long-term, low-level exposure of paraquat on human health. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for quantification of paraquat in urine and air-filter samples collected in a human-exposure study among farm workers in Costa Rica. A sample pretreatment consisted of removal of interfering substances using solid-phase extraction resin columns. The precision and accuracy of the method were tested using duplicate spiked urine samples. The correlation between results for blind samples obtained using ELISA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was significant (R 2∈=∈0.945 and 0.906 for spiked and field samples, respectively). With an LOQ of 2 ng mL-1, this ELISA method was able to distinguish the exposed from the nonexposed farm workers. For the air-filter analysis, paraquat was extracted by 9M H2SO4 at 60°C for 12 hours, and the results obtained by ELISA showed good correlation (R 2∈=∈0.918) with the spectrophotometric (256 nm) measurements. Paraquat in acid-stabilized urine samples was very stable, and no significant losses were detected during a 3-month storage at room temperature, at 4°C, or at -20°C.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=15744403939&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=15744403939&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s00244-003-0251-x

DO - 10.1007/s00244-003-0251-x

M3 - Article

C2 - 15696345

AN - SCOPUS:15744403939

VL - 48

SP - 184

EP - 190

JO - Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

JF - Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

SN - 0090-4341

IS - 2

ER -