Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma in cats: 30 cases (1994-2015)

Pierre M. Amsellem, Ryan P. Cavanaugh, Po-Yen Chou, Nicholas J. Bacon, Sandra P. Schallberger, James P. Farese, Charles A. Kuntz, Julius M. Liptak, William T Culp, Cecilia S. Robat, Barbara E. Powers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and outcome for cats with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) that underwent surgical excision. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 30 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Databases of 13 Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology member-affiliated institutions were searched for records of cats with a histologic diagnosis of AGASACA that underwent tumor excision. For each cat, information regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome was extracted from the medical record. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine median time to local recurrence (TLR), disease-free interval (DFI), and survival time. Cox regression was used to identify factors associated with TLR, DFI, and survival time. RESULTS Perineal ulceration or discharge was the most common clinical sign in affected cats. Eleven cats developed local recurrence at a median of 96 days after AGASACA excision. Incomplete tumor margins and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for local recurrence. Nuclear pleomorphic score was negatively associated with DFI. Local recurrence and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for death. Median DFI and survival time were 234 and 260 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, in cats, perineal ulceration or discharge should raise suspicion of AGASACA and prompt rectal and anal sac examinations. Local recurrence was the most common life-limiting event in cats that underwent surgery for treatment of AGASACA, suggesting that wide margins should be obtained whenever possible during AGASACA excision. Efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for treatment of cats with AGASACA requires further investigation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:716-722).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)716-722
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume254
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 2019

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Anal Sacs
Apocrine Glands
anal glands
adenocarcinoma
Adenocarcinoma
Cats
cats
Recurrence
Disease-Free Survival
excision
relapse
risk factors
neoplasms
radiotherapy
Routine Diagnostic Tests
diagnostic techniques
drug therapy
Medical Records
Neoplasms
Radiotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Amsellem, P. M., Cavanaugh, R. P., Chou, P-Y., Bacon, N. J., Schallberger, S. P., Farese, J. P., ... Powers, B. E. (2019). Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma in cats: 30 cases (1994-2015). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 254(6), 716-722. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.254.6.716

Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma in cats : 30 cases (1994-2015). / Amsellem, Pierre M.; Cavanaugh, Ryan P.; Chou, Po-Yen; Bacon, Nicholas J.; Schallberger, Sandra P.; Farese, James P.; Kuntz, Charles A.; Liptak, Julius M.; Culp, William T; Robat, Cecilia S.; Powers, Barbara E.

In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 254, No. 6, 15.03.2019, p. 716-722.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amsellem, PM, Cavanaugh, RP, Chou, P-Y, Bacon, NJ, Schallberger, SP, Farese, JP, Kuntz, CA, Liptak, JM, Culp, WT, Robat, CS & Powers, BE 2019, 'Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma in cats: 30 cases (1994-2015)', Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 254, no. 6, pp. 716-722. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.254.6.716
Amsellem, Pierre M. ; Cavanaugh, Ryan P. ; Chou, Po-Yen ; Bacon, Nicholas J. ; Schallberger, Sandra P. ; Farese, James P. ; Kuntz, Charles A. ; Liptak, Julius M. ; Culp, William T ; Robat, Cecilia S. ; Powers, Barbara E. / Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma in cats : 30 cases (1994-2015). In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2019 ; Vol. 254, No. 6. pp. 716-722.
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AU - Amsellem, Pierre M.

AU - Cavanaugh, Ryan P.

AU - Chou, Po-Yen

AU - Bacon, Nicholas J.

AU - Schallberger, Sandra P.

AU - Farese, James P.

AU - Kuntz, Charles A.

AU - Liptak, Julius M.

AU - Culp, William T

AU - Robat, Cecilia S.

AU - Powers, Barbara E.

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N2 - OBJECTIVE To describe the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and outcome for cats with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) that underwent surgical excision. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 30 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Databases of 13 Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology member-affiliated institutions were searched for records of cats with a histologic diagnosis of AGASACA that underwent tumor excision. For each cat, information regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome was extracted from the medical record. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine median time to local recurrence (TLR), disease-free interval (DFI), and survival time. Cox regression was used to identify factors associated with TLR, DFI, and survival time. RESULTS Perineal ulceration or discharge was the most common clinical sign in affected cats. Eleven cats developed local recurrence at a median of 96 days after AGASACA excision. Incomplete tumor margins and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for local recurrence. Nuclear pleomorphic score was negatively associated with DFI. Local recurrence and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for death. Median DFI and survival time were 234 and 260 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, in cats, perineal ulceration or discharge should raise suspicion of AGASACA and prompt rectal and anal sac examinations. Local recurrence was the most common life-limiting event in cats that underwent surgery for treatment of AGASACA, suggesting that wide margins should be obtained whenever possible during AGASACA excision. Efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for treatment of cats with AGASACA requires further investigation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:716-722).

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