Linda J. Lowenstine, Rita McManamon, Karen A. Terio

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations


This chapter highlights diseases affecting gibbons and great apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) with emphasis on those that are important or unique to apes. All apes are endangered. Pathologists contribute to their conservation through understanding diseases affecting both managed and free-living populations. Apes are susceptible to many of the same diseases as humans and other nonhuman primates. Trauma and infectious diseases, such as Ebola, respiratory infections and parasitism affect apes in range countries. Respiratory and gastrointestinal infections are also important in wild as well as captive populations. Degenerative diseases of older age, especially cardiovascular disease and renal disease, are more important in zoo-housed apes than in their wild counterparts. Infections described only in zoo-housed apes include coccidiodomycosis, tularemia, dysentery due to balantidiasis, and systemic amoebiasis due to balamuthia. Those reported only in apes in range countries include yaws, leprosy, Ebola, anthrax-like bacillary septicemia, and gapeworms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPathology of Wildlife and Zoo Animals
Number of pages38
ISBN (Electronic)9780128053065
ISBN (Print)9780128092194
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Apes
  • Bonobos
  • Chimpanzees
  • Chronic diseases
  • Gibbons
  • Gorillas
  • Infectious diseases
  • Orangutans
  • Pathology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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