Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Aamazona ventralis)

Saskia Geelen, David Guzman, Marcy J. Souza, Sherry Cox, Nicholas S. Keuler, Joanne R Paul-Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Objective-To determine the antinociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) following IV administration. Animals-11 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Procedures-Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) and an equivalent volume (≤0.34 mL) of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered to parrots in a complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after treatment administration; agitation-sedation scores were determined for parrots at each of those times. Results-The estimated mean changes in temperature from the baseline value that elicited a foot withdrawal response were 1.65° and -1.08°C after administration of tramadol and saline solution, respectively. Temperatures at which a foot withdrawal response was elicited were significantly higher than baseline values at all 5 evaluation times after administration of tramadol and were significantly lower than baseline values at 30, 120, and 240 minutes after administration of saline solution. No sedation, agitation, or other adverse effects were observed in any of the parrots after administration of tramadol. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots in the present study. Sedation and adverse effects were not observed. These results are consistent with results of other studies in which the antinociceptive effects of tramadol after oral administration to parrots were determined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-206
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Aamazona ventralis)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this