Antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis)

David Guzman, Marcy J. Souza, Jana M. Braun, Sherry K. Cox, Nicholas S. Keuler, Joanne R Paul-Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective-To evaluate antinociceptive effects on thermal thresholds after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-15 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Procedures-2 crossover experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 15 parrots received 3 treatments (tramadol at 2 doses [10 and 20 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. In the second experiment, 11 parrots received 2 treatments (tramadol hydrochloride [30 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. Baseline thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured 1 hour before drug or control suspension administration; thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured after administration at 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours (both experiments) and also at 9 hours (second experiment only). Results-For the first experiment, there were no overall effects of treatment, hour, period, or any interactions. For the second experiment, there was an overall effect of treatment, with a significant difference between tramadol hydrochloride and control suspension (mean change from baseline, 2.00° and -0.09°C, respectively). There also was a significant change from baseline for tramadol hydrochloride at 0.5, 1.5, and 6 hours after administration but not at 3 or 9 hours after administration. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg, PO, induced thermal antinociception in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. This dose was necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects, with duration of action up to 6 hours. Further studies with other types of noxious stimulation, dosages, and intervals are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in psittacines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1148-1152
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Volume73
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2012

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Amazona
Tramadol
analgesic effect
parrots
oral administration
Oral Administration
heat
Suspensions
Hot Temperature
dosage
Parrots
Analgesics
Foot
Psittaciformes
Drug and Narcotic Control
Therapeutics
drugs
duration
animals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). / Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J.; Braun, Jana M.; Cox, Sherry K.; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.

In: American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 73, No. 8, 08.2012, p. 1148-1152.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Objective-To evaluate antinociceptive effects on thermal thresholds after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-15 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Procedures-2 crossover experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 15 parrots received 3 treatments (tramadol at 2 doses [10 and 20 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. In the second experiment, 11 parrots received 2 treatments (tramadol hydrochloride [30 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. Baseline thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured 1 hour before drug or control suspension administration; thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured after administration at 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours (both experiments) and also at 9 hours (second experiment only). Results-For the first experiment, there were no overall effects of treatment, hour, period, or any interactions. For the second experiment, there was an overall effect of treatment, with a significant difference between tramadol hydrochloride and control suspension (mean change from baseline, 2.00° and -0.09°C, respectively). There also was a significant change from baseline for tramadol hydrochloride at 0.5, 1.5, and 6 hours after administration but not at 3 or 9 hours after administration. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg, PO, induced thermal antinociception in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. This dose was necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects, with duration of action up to 6 hours. Further studies with other types of noxious stimulation, dosages, and intervals are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in psittacines.",
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