Antimotility agents for the treatment of acute noninfectious diarrhea in critically ill patients: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

Nikolay Bugaev, Bishwajit Bhattacharya, William C. Chiu, John J. Como, Michael W. Cripps, Paula Ferrada, Rondi B. Gelbard, Stephen Gondek, George Kasotakis, Dennis Kim, Caleb Mentzer, Bryce R.H. Robinson, Edgardo S. Salcedo, D. Dante Yeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acute noninfectious diarrhea is a common phenomenon in intensive care unit patients. Multiple treatments are suggested but the most effective management is unknown. A working group of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma, aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of loperamide, diphenoxylate/atropine, and elemental diet on acute noninfectious diarrhea in critically ill adults and to develop recommendations applicable to daily clinical practice. METHODS: The literature search identified 11 randomized controlled trials (RCT) appropriate for inclusion. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology was applied to evaluate the effect of loperamide, diphenoxylate/atropine, and elemental diet on the resolution of noninfectious diarrhea in critically ill adults based on selected outcomes: improvement in clinical diarrhea, fecal frequency, time to the diarrhea resolution, and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: The level of evidence was assessed as very low. Analyses of 10 RCTs showed that loperamide facilitates resolution of diarrhea. Diphenoxylate/atropine was evaluated in three RCTs and was as effective as loperamide and more effective than placebo. No studies evaluating elemental diet as an intervention in patients with diarrhea were found. CONCLUSION: Loperamide and diphenoxylate/atropine are conditionally recommended to be used in critically ill patients with acute noninfectious diarrhea. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic Review/Guidelines, level III.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)915-921
Number of pages7
JournalThe journal of trauma and acute care surgery
Volume87
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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