Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Its incidence has been increasing lately in the developing countries. Much evidence suggests a major role for inflammation in all phases of atherosclerosis. Cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, chemokines, and monocytes-macrophages as well as T lymphocytes play a pivotal role in atherogenesis. C-reactive protein (CRP), a downstream marker of inflammation, in addition to being a risk marker for CVD, could contribute to atherosclerosis. Dietary micronutrients with anti-inflammatory properties, specially α-tocopherol, may play an important role with regard to the prevention and treatment of CVD. α-Tocopherol has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. α-Tocopherol therapy, especially at high doses, has been shown to decrease release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and the chemokine interleukin-8, and to decrease adhesion of monocytes to endothelium. In addition, α-tocopherol has been shown to decrease CRP levels in patients with CVD and having related risk factors for CVD (such as diabetes and smoking). Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels have also been shown to be decreased with α-tocopherol supplementation in vivo. In this review, our focus will be on anti-inflammatory effects of α-tocopherol reported in in vivo studies.
- C-reactive protein
- Cardiovascular disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)